Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education Major in Special Education

Subject Categories

Special Education and Teaching


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Educational Leadership and Management

Thesis Advisor

Ma. Cecilia Licuan

Defense Panel Chair

Jasper Vincent Alontaga

Defense Panel Member

Thelma Mingoa
Abigail Rice


Although the implementation of inclusive education policy in the Philippines looks favorable for society, a major evaluation of the existing challenges faced by both teachers and learners in the transition process is imperative. As such, this study aimed to analyze the challenges and interpret the gap between teaching and learning in the process of transitioning from partial inclusion to full inclusion. It also proposed psychoeducational strategies for learners with special needs who transitioned from partial to full inclusion to address the gap. The study was conducted in nine public elementary schools with SPED Centers in Manila-the capital city of the Philippines. Teachers of learners with special needs who transitioned from partial to full inclusion, SPED teachers and regular (receiving) teachers, took part in this study as they serve the frontliners in the implementation of the program.

The study was able to find out that the practice of Inclusive Education in the Philippines is determined by an outdated directive from the Department of Education which does not specify a clear and definite process of including students with learning needs in the regular set-up. The challenges mentioned int his study include but are not limited to content, strategies, technology, changes in policy from the Department of Education, and addressing students' needs. Based on the findings of this study, though teachers were favorable for inclusive education, the whole system must still be assessed for we are still far from achieving a successful inclusive education. It was cited that most of the regular teachers do not have sufficient knowledge and skills to handle students with learning needs. This problem is associated with the lack of training from the Department of Education. Teachers reported that there are training sessions but only for a few people. For some reasons, the mindset of receiving teachers was also seen as something problematic.

On top of the challenges discussed in this study, it is the lack of funding that most teachers are pointing out. Despite having the biggest chunk of a country's budget, we still have problems with allocating a budget for special education and inclusive education. Without proper allocation of budget on this inclusive education, the above-mentioned problems will still exist.

Most of the challenges and factors mentioned in this study are associated with handling and teaching students with learning needs. That is why the researcher encourages teachers to use the proposed psychoeducational strategies mentioned in this study. The use of psychoeducational strategies will help students with their learning needs and will greatly improve their wellbeing.

Keywords: Transitional Challenges, Inclusive Education, Psychoeducational Strategies, Inclusive Education Challenges, Learners with Special Needs

Abstract Format




Physical Description

160 leaves


Inclusive education; Children with disabilities--Education; Special education; Educational psychology

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