Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Mathematics

Subject Categories



Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Advisor

Auxencia A. Limjap

Defense Panel Chair

Minie Rose C. Lapinid

Defense Panel Member

Celina P. Sarmiento
Crisanto Q. Regadio
Levi E. Elipani
Rosie Lopez-Conde


The challenges faced during the development of culture sensitive lessons (CSLs) in mathematics for multicultural classes with indigenous students establish the importance of organizing a professional learning community (PLC) in school. The ethnic and geographical diversity of the students in a multicultural class necessitates culture sensitivity in teaching and instructions. The use of modular approach is timely during pandemics and is suitable for distance learning for the IP living in far-flung areas beneficial for in-home school or self-paced learning. However, current Math teaching practices and indigenized or culture sensitive learning materials are insufficient. The localization and indigenization of lessons is a challenge. Despite giving tasks like incorporating Manobo talent showcase and storytelling, enunciating cultural and mathematical ideas, knowledge retention assessment, and tribal trading practices of the students, especially the IP, still have low academic performance. Hence, an exploratory case study has been applied to three cases, to investigate and explore the PLC composed of Mathematics teachers, IPED coordinators, school heads, and IKSP holders in developing the CSLs for multicultural instructions. Semi-structured interviews, focused grouped discussion, lesson planning, reviewing of cultural related videos and documents, and research journals have been conducted with eight Mathematics teachers, three IPED coordinators, three IKSP holders, three school heads, nine non-IP students, and three IP students.

The ADDIE instructional model has been used for the crafting of the Mathematics XI CSLs and multicultural instructions. Thematic analysis has been applied using NVIVO software for the qualitative data gathered. Results have shown the importance of the PLC in addressing challenges of multicultural instructions in the cases studied. The cultural inferiority complex, mainstream education over indigenization, westernized instructional materials, Manobo peer pressures, and comprehending instructions are the culturally relevant challenges encountered by the diverse students in learning Mathematics. For the teachers, the communication platform and scheduling of meetings amidst pandemic, less understanding of the diverse students’ cultural background, and the transition of teaching to modular approach with multicultural class, are the challenges they encountered during the process of developing the CSLs. Nevertheless, trainings for culture sensitive instructional development in mathematics, enhancement of their intercultural skills through PLC, teacher’s collaboration experience, participating trainings and webinars, indigenous people and community involvement and commitment, and qualitative research involvement are the opportunities they have gained from their involvement in the PLC. A Professional Learning Community prescriptive process model for Multicultural Instruction (PLC-MI) has been generated based on the qualitative data gathered from the participants of the study and through cross-case analysis. It is constituted by five domains. These domains are the (1) multicultural class assessment (2) teachers’ intercultural skills, (3) culture sensitive lessons development, (4) multicultural instructions implementation and (5) evaluation and reflection. There is a need to change and enhance the community of practice and the development of learning materials to cater to the needs of the IP students. Professional development must also be given focus which could be facilitated by the PLC towards the development of a culture of practice in the school and in the community towards improved student learning.

Abstract Format






Physical Description

ii, 407 leaves


Mathematics--Study and teaching; Multicultural education; Professional learning communities; Independent study

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Available for download on Saturday, May 14, 2022