Development of the positive anticipated experience and emotion engenderment model (PAXEEM)

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Industrial Engineering


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Industrial Engineering

Thesis Adviser

Rosemary R. Seva


The concept of anticipation is argued to offer advantageous opportunities to consider and assess User Experience (UX) in the early stages of product development when working prototypes are usually unavailable. Given this however, current research explaining Anticipated User Experience (AUX) have not considered the distinction and prioritization between pragmatic and hedonic attributes of an interactive product in how users anticipate positive experiences with the concept of desirability. An interactive product design framework called the Positive Anticipated Experience and Emotion Engenderment Model (PAXEEM) was developed in this study which proposes that: (1) the pragmatic and hedonic quality of positive anticipated experience (PAX), and positive anticipated emotion (PAE) are engendered by a desired products (DPC) pragmatic and hedonic characteristics and (2) the pragmatic and hedonic qualities of PAX, and PAE influence the products desirability. The PAXEEM aims to support product designers during the conceptualization stage of product development.

The model was validated using a case study approach. The methodology used consists of product selection, product attribute (DPC) selection, factor level identification, alternative design generation, and evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. A smartphone was selected as a representative interactive product for the reason that it is personal (meaning users tend to have high involvement with the product), and it is used by a huge number of people, as these suggest that most people have the capability to anticipate experiences with this product inspired form their experiential knowledge. In the attribute (DPC) identification stage, pragmatic and hedonic design features of a smartphone were identified and screened using a smartphone feature importance survey (pragmatic DPCs: Screen Size, Hardware Keys, Menu Design hedonic DPCs: Color, Input Method). In the factor level identification stage, the possible values (feature variations) of the identified DPCs were determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the selected features were combined in the alternative design generation stage. These DPC combinations (alternative smartphone designs) were rendered using CATIA (3D) software. Each design was evaluated by respondents (50% male, average age= 33.6) using a questionnaire (self-report) in terms of PAX [perception on the level of the identified constructs for pragmatic quality (Cronbachs a= 0.635), hedonic-identification (Cronbachs a= 0.632), and hedonic-stimulation (Cronbachs a= 0.854) qualities], PAE [perception on the felt level of satisfaction, amazement, positive enthusiasm, and optimism (Cronbachs a= 0.981)], and desirability.

The data collected were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) due to the latent nature of some variables (e.g. PAX, PAE) in the model. The results of the SEM (fit indices: GFI= 0.952, CFI= 0.989, RMSEA= 0.066) were able validate all hypothesized relationships, except for the direct significant influence of PAX towards desirability. Instead, an indirect relationship between PAX and desirability was observed through the mediating variable, PAE. This, however, still establishes the importance of engendering PAX as it can significantly influence PAE and PAE, in turn, affects desirability. Moreover, this study suggests that designers may focus more on investigating on and improving the users hedonic needs (DPCs) than their pragmatic needs, as a relatively stronger relationship was observed between Hedonic DPCs and PAX-Hedonic, than with Pragmatic DPCs and PAX-Pragmatic. Similarly, in terms of eliciting desirability, a stronger relationship was found with PAX-Hedonic, than with PAX-Pragmatic, suggesting that designers may focus their resources more on engendering hedonic experiences. These support the notion of hedonic quality as motivator and pragmatic quality as only a hygiene factor.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

computer optical disc.

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