Metal-dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PPM family: Evolution, structures, diseases and inhibitors


College of Science



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Pharmacology and Therapeutics



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© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Protein phosphatases and kinases control multiple cellular events including proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses through regulating reversible protein phosphorylation, the most important post-translational modification. Members of metal-dependent protein phosphatase (PPM) family, also known as PP2C phosphatases, are Ser/Thr phosphatases that bind manganese/magnesium ions (Mn2+/Mg2+) in their active center and function as single subunit enzymes. In mammals, there are 20 isoforms of PPM phosphatases: PPM1A, PPM1B, PPM1D, PPM1E, PPM1F, PPM1G, PPM1H, PPM1J, PPM1K, PPM1L, PPM1M, PPM1N, ILKAP, PDP1, PDP2, PHLPP1, PHLPP2, PP2D1, PPTC7, and TAB1, whereas there are only 8 in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences of vertebrate PPM isoforms revealed that they can be divided into 12 different classes: PPM1A/PPM1B/PPM1N, PPM1D, PPM1E/PPM1F, PPM1G, PPM1H/PPM1J/PPM1M, PPM1K, PPM1L, ILKAP, PDP1/PDP2, PP2D1/PHLPP1/PHLPP2, TAB1, and PPTC7. PPM-family members have a conserved catalytic core region, which contains the metal-chelating residues. The different isoforms also have isoform specific regions within their catalytic core domain and terminal domains, and these regions may be involved in substrate recognition and/or functional regulation of the phosphatases. The twenty mammalian PPM phosphatases are involved in regulating diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, cell differentiation, immune responses, and cell metabolism. Mutation, overexpression, or deletion of the PPM phosphatase gene results in abnormal cellular responses, which lead to various human diseases. This review focuses on the structures and biological functions of the PPM-phosphatase family and their associated diseases. The development of specific inhibitors against the PPM phosphatase family as a therapeutic strategy will also be discussed.


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