Phosphine resistance in Psocid, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera) in the Philippines


College of Science


Center for Natural Sciences and Environment Research

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Source Title

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

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Phosphine fumigation is one of the most effective way control insect pests in stored agricultural products. However, continuous use and highly dependent on phosphine fumigation has led to resistance development of major storage insect pests, including psocid. Fifty adult psocid were exposed for 20 h testing protocol to classify the susceptible to resistant strains. A full assay was composed of eight concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 1.000 g/m− 3. The most resistant strain was subjected for the extended exposure period of 72 and 144 h. Result revealed that, two out of eleven strain were still susceptible to phosphine fumigation, while nine were classified as the following: 2 strain (very low resistance), 3 strain (moderate resistance, 1 strain (high resistance) and 3 strain (very high resistance). Most susceptible was collected from La Union (lr1lug strain); LC50 and LC99 were 0.004 and 0.024 g/m− 3 concentration. Moreover, the highest resistance level was recorded in Tarlac (lr3tr strain); the LC50 and LC99 were 0.917 and 2.081 g/m− 3 concentration respectively. Based on the response of the most resistant strain and developmental stage, the projected minimum effective concentration or MEC of phosphine gas to provide a complete control of all stages of L. bostrychophila were 0.100–0.500 g/m− 3 for 72 and 144 h exposure period. The gathered data allow us to assess the importance of impending new resistance to the Philippine agricultural industry and to make an effective phosphine fumigation approaches plus resistant management strategy to fight a new strong resistance before they arise. © 2020, African Association of Insect Scientists.


Digitial Object Identifier (DOI)



Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology | Life Sciences


Phosphine; Psocoptera--Philippines; Fumigation

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