Title

The role of middle powers in the modernization of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): The case of the special Japan–Australia strategic partnership and the Philippines

College

College of Liberal Arts

Department/Unit

International Studies

Document Type

Article

Source Title

Korean Journal of Defense Analysis

Volume

31

Issue

1

First Page

145

Last Page

164

Publication Date

3-1-2019

Abstract

This article explores the efforts of Japan and Australia to enhance the naval capability of third countries—specifically the Philippines—threatened by the rise of China. Considered as middle powers, both countries are members of two associations of maritime democracies, namely: the Democratic Security Diamond (DSD), and the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD). Since the formation of their special strategic partnership, Japan and Australia have jointly assisted in building up the capabilities of the Philippine Navy (PN), Philippine Coast Guard (PCG), and the Philippine Air Force (PAF). The recent dramatic shift in Philippine foreign policy direction fosters this triangular security relationship. On the one hand, President Rodrigo Duterte, in distancing the Philippines from the United States (the country’s traditional ally) favors closer security ties with Japan and Australia. On the other hand, Japan and Australia want to prevent the Philippines from gravitating closer to China’s orbit of influence and power. Gradually, however, this development can either modify or erode the American hub-and-spoke system of alliance in East Asia and increase the spoke-to-spoke links leading to the creation of minilateral and plurilateral security arrangements in the Indo–Pacific region. © 2019 Korea Institute for Defense Analyses.

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Disciplines

International Relations

Keywords

Military assistance, Japanese--Philippines; Military assistance, Australian--Philippines; Armed Forces of the Philippines; Middle powers; Japan--Military policy

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