Outcomes of collective bargaining in the Philippine manufacturing industry

Added Title

CBERD working paper series ; 2004-03


Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business


Commercial Law

Document Type


Publication Date



Center for Business and Economics Research Development

Physical Description

72 pages ; 28 cm.


The quantity, kind and quality of provisions in collective bargaining agreements by companies in the Philippine manufacturing industry are influenced by several factors. Company size is a significant factor. Larger establishments have more flexibility in negotiating benefits to their employees than smaller establishments. Outcomes of collective bargaining are likewise significantly correlated to union registration, type of ownership, and company location. With limited resources available, this study shows that CBAs tend to reflect those provisions that are more useful to a particular company and union depending on their particular situation. While a correlation between, for instance, the size of a company and the amount, kind and quality of benefits administered to employees may generally be expected the study shows that the same is true whether or not a company is unionized.

The study also reveals that only about eleven percent of CBAs with provisions on benefits required by law contained stipulations that were all above the minimum required by law, while twelve and one-half percent contained provisions that were below the minimum. Majority (76.13 percent) of the CBAs in the study contained stipulations that were just equivalent to minimum legal requirements.

Qualitative factors that also influenced the outcomes of negotiations include the character of the union and personality, attitude, aptitude, qualification, and preparation of the company and union negotiating panels. Likewise, government agencies play a key role in the resolution of disputes that arise during the conduct of negotiations.



Labor and Employment Law

Series Title

CBERD working paper series ; 2004-03

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