Online learning behavior, cognition, environment, and perceived academic performance: An analysis of college students’ perceived learning loss and gains in online learning


Institutional Testing and Evaluation Office

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Source Title

DLSU Research Congress 2023

Publication Date



School closure during pandemic has forced schools to shift to online learning, affecting students in all aspects. One of the effects of school closures is learning loss. Learning loss during the pandemic was estimated to be equivalent to roughly half a year’s worth of learning. Most studies made use of achievement test for analyzing learning loss and gains. However, these can also be presented in terms of development or deterioration of non-cognitive factors such as student engagement, motivation/interest, attendance, and communication. This study sought to determine the effects of online learning on college students based on Bandura’s ternary learning theory. The theory posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction among three elements: learning behavior, learning cognition, and learning environment. The study involved 327 college students enrolled in hybrid classes who responded to standardized scales. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis. Diagnostics for regression analysis were conducted. The possible presence of multicollinearity was tested through estimation of the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and Tolerance (TOL). Results showed VIFs below 4.0 and TOLs above .25, indicating no multicollinearity (i.e., VIFs = 1.857 to 2.402 and TOLs = 0.416 to 0.539). The Weighted Least Square model was also used to account for homoscedasticity. Results showed significant and positive relationships among the three variables, i.e., (1) between learning environment, and learning behavior and learning cognition, and (2) between learning behavior and learning cognition. The three variables also significantly predicted perceived academic performance, explaining 53% of the variance in the dependent variable. Students also reported having more learning gains than losses in online learning. It is recommended that teachers come up with teaching strategies, activities and learning environment that will best motivate students in online learning modality. Students are also encouraged to be engaged extensively in their online classes to be able to achieve good learning outcomes.



Education | Educational Psychology


Learning; Academic achievement; Open learning

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