Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Psychology Major in Clinical Psychology

Subject Categories



College of Liberal Arts



Thesis Advisor

Johann Andrew V. Sagmit

Defense Panel Chair

Maria Caridad H. Tarroja

Defense Panel Member

Jim Rey R. Baloloy
Maria Angeles G. Lapeña


Combat exposure (CE) can lead to a violent, traumatic and life–threatening experience that can scathe a soldier with invisible wounds that maim and damage his psyche. One of these is the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Recent studies revealed that as high as 48% of returning soldiers develop symptoms associated with PTSD, making it the “signature wound of war.” Unfortunately, CE is inevitable in military context. Thus, it would be very beneficial to explore protective factors that can buffer or moderate the adverse effects of CE. Ego Resiliency (ER) is the dynamic capacity of an individual to modify the level of ego control as a function to the demands of the environment. ER can be a possible agent in adapting and thriving during traumatic and stressful situations such as CE. Therefore, the objective of this study is to test the buffering effect of ER in the relationship between CE and severity of PTSD symptoms among Filipino soldiers.

Methods: The research participants were (N = 290) male, enlisted personnel (mean age = 31.66) from the Philippine Army who were deployed in combat missions for the last two (2) years. They were selected via purposive sampling. The data gathering tools that were used to test the interaction effects of CE and ER on the severity of PTSD symptoms were: Demographic Information Sheet, Combat Exposure Scale (CES), PTSD Checklist for DSM 5 (PCL-5) and Ego- Resiliency Scale-Revised (ER89-R). Data were analyzed via CFA using (JASPS; version 10) and moderated regression analysis using SPSS (PROCESS) by Hayes (2013).

Results: The interaction between CE and ER fell short of statistical significance. This suggests that in this sample, ER failed to moderate the adverse effects of combat exposure in developing PTSD symptoms. Contrariwise, it was found that in this sample, CE can significantly predict the severity of PTSD symptoms.

Conclusion: In this sample of Filipino combatant soldiers, the interaction between CE and ER was distal to have a measurable effect on the severity of PTSD symptoms. However, results obtained from this study can have potential implications for military training, assessment, intervention, and research.

Keywords: soldiers, combat exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder, ego resiliency

Abstract Format






Physical Description

ix, 76 leaves


Soldiers; Combat—Psychological aspects; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Adjustment (Psychology); Ego (Psychology)

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