Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in International Studies major in Asian Studies

Subject Categories

Asian Studies


College of Liberal Arts


International Studies

Thesis Advisor

Elaine C. Tolentino

Defense Panel Chair

Ron Bridget T. Vilog

Defense Panel Member

Francis Rico C. Domingo

Charmaine M. Willoughby


Everybody knows that war is cruel, that it makes people do unimaginable things, and that if a Hitler like character is not involved, war is sometimes avoidable. However, war was inevitable in the early 1914 and 1939 due to lack of deterrents. The biggest reason was that the League of Nations proposed by the United States’ President Woodrow Wilson did not perform well.

Furthermore, using E.H. Carr’s words in his book “The Twenty Year’s Crisis”, the League of Nations has insisted too much on Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism that pursue “greatest happiness of the greatest number” and eventually could not deter the World WarⅡ.

Considering from the other side of issue, “Utopianism” in the League of Nations could not hinder the World War Ⅱ.

Next, there are lots of critics and analysts who have researched the rationale of the Pacific War which started in 1941, and some of these scholars have referred to it as a stupid and meaningless war as it might have been avoidable. Others oppose this idea claiming that it happened due to the need to protect their states from threats abroad. No one seemed to agree on one main cause and even a few politicians have exposed the truth that there were horrifying political conspiracies in the background of the war.

This study will therefore reveal what the ‘real reason’ for the Pacific War was and the initial spark that ignited the war. Although humans cannot change the history of war, they can alter the future of war by understanding its causes and after effects. The United States used atomic bombs to end the Pacific War, surprisingly a little later nuclear weapons became the main deterrent of war, especially for the victorious but still rival states of World War Ⅱ. Nuclear deterrence now prevents war but we fear it might lose its effectiveness due to growth of cyber-attacks and extra-atmospheric strategies in the near future.

It is evident also that one of the deterrents of conflict that does not require nuclear power or missiles is the elucidation of the causes of war.

The difference between humans and animals is whether they can control their aspirations or not.

Aspiration is greed to make things better, and its driving force is "Avaritia".

This connection between “Avaritia” and the economy sometimes results in conflict and war and I will explain how this comes about.

The United States and Russia believe that it is permissible for them to have nuclear weapons. On the other hand, they extremely dislike other countries possessing nuclear power, especially for military use, as an example.

It is exactly this selfishness that comes from human greed.

It is selfishness, akin to the jealousy of interfering with others who are becoming richer in order to maintain their own riches.

Hans Morgenthau cited Reinhold Niebuhr’s doctrine:

The cause of war lies in "the source of the dark consciousness lurking in the human mind." And I interpret the dark consciousness he describes as human greed and jealousy. Niebuhr also refers that human beings can suppress the bad part by “Education”. Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, 1948

That is why the Kim family in North Korea has been maintaining their position by prioritizing nuclear development above all else even when the people have fallen into starvation and poverty.

Kim does not want the same fate as Saddam Hussein in Iraq or Gaddafi in Libya.

But Niebuhr does not say that neither education, ethics, nor morals, will work for rogue leaders and states that do not uphold international law and international order.

Does mankind have any other methods to prevent war without nuclear weapons?

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