Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies

Subject Categories

Political Science | Sustainability


College of Liberal Arts


Political Science

Thesis Advisor

Francisco A. Magno

Defense Panel Chair

Ma. Divina Gracia Z. Roldan

Defense Panel Member

Ador R. Torneo
Christianne F. Collantes
Maria Milagros Regina I. Lomotan
Marie Bembie A. Girado


Co-production is a process through which inputs from individuals who are not “in” the same organization are transformed into goods and services (Ostrom, 1996). Co-production outputs such as the delivery of forest goods and protection services deserve a scholarly attention as literature recognizes the lack of ecological understanding. This study thus aim to provide an analysis on forest protection rules, norms, and practices of the Ikalahan/Kalanguya indigenous community in Northern Luzon, Philippines through the vital interplay of state and non-state actors.

While mixed methods were employed in the study, it generally utilized qualitative methods, particularly participant observation, interviews, focus group discussions and secondary data on forest protection.

Results show that institutional dynamics, strong leadership, capability and capacity building, openness to reconciliation, and negotiation have shaped the manner of co-production. However, the synergy between the regular producers and co-producers is more complex and nuanced than it seems. Intertwining concepts of culture, society, technology, and science have created overlapping jurisdictions and institutional mandates due to the so-called “politics of knowledge.” Barriers in the co-production process are also likely to occur due to political conflict, overlapping and conflicting policies, politics of resources, as well as the question of expertise. As such, dynamics of power, knowledge, and practices have been the major challenges in carrying out the co-production process.

Meanwhile, resources (i.e., money and technology) and synergy facilitate co-production through various modes of interactions such as formal, informal and personal meetings, and dialogues leading to collective action. Indigenous knowledge systems and practices also play a crucial role in the framing of forest policies. The tongtongan (dialogue), the Ikalahan/Kalanguya traditional judicial system, highlights the voices of community in their indigenous and innovative forest regeneration techniques. While statutory policies are deemed necessary, findings suggest for a noncentralized theorizing on forest protection and management. Cultural values, community perceptions, and local knowledge should be fully recognized by the state in crafting forest policies.

This study has exemplified that a co-producer can play a major role in delivering forest protection services. With local forest norms and practices, the community was able to establish legitimate partnership with the state.

Furthermore, this study frames forest protection through the lens of localizing power relations and the necessity of norms, belief system, and values. With this, it recommends for the negotiation and interplay of science and natural resources with culture and traditional practices to attain ecological balance and sustainability. This can be achieved primarily by strengthening the ties between the government entities and the community.

Keywords: co-production, local knowledge, institutions, resource use, sustainable development, political and social negotiation, synergy

Abstract Format






Physical Description

[133 leaves]


Forest protection--Philippines--Northern Luzon; Ikalahan/Kalanguya Community

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