Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering

Subject Categories

Mechanical Engineering


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Advisor

Aristotle T. Ubando
Ramondy Girard R. Tan
Anthony S. F. Chiu

Defense Panel Chair

Jose Bienvenido M. Biona

Defense Panel Member

Alvin B. Culaba
Krista Danielle S. Yu
Argel A. Bandala
Dominic C. Y. Foo


The circular economy is a prominent paradigm for sustainable development. The paradigm promotes recirculation pathways on the economic system’s material flows. Innovative solutions are necessary in inducing these pathways. Micro-level systems (companies) provide technological innovation as a solution. Notably, their technological developments are dependent on the goals of the macro-level system (cities and companies). Among macro-level systems, circularity indicators are developed as a guide towards the circular economy. Existing indicators, however, reflect the concurrent state. There are lacking metrics in measuring the potential of achieving circularity. Ex ante indicators enable such measurement. Currently, ex-ante indicators for macro-level systems are limited. Innovation is prominently used for the indicator. There is a research gap in considering other indicator features. To resolve this research problem, this thesis identifies other critical ex-ante indicators on a macro-level circular economy. This thesis analyses the government support, company culture, consumer demand, social recognition, economic attractiveness, and information to practitioners as candidates for the ex-ante indicator. Network map of causal influences are formulated using the fuzzy DEMATEL framework. The network maps are then empirically calibrated using a novel DEMATEL-FCM framework. Pre-CE data on city-level and country-level are used as the empirical reference. The indicators are then evaluated as scenario in an EEIO model of the Philippines. Findings of this thesis highlight financially profitable business models as a significant indicator. Additionally, synergy of government support and consumer demand with supporting infrastructure needs to be considered. A discussion on the implications to the transport sector is included. This discussion showcases the applicability of the findings to engineering systems. Another discussion highlighted the interrelationships of drivers for CE. Of which, the derived insights help in the development of novel ex-ante CE indicators.

Abstract Format






Physical Description

92 leaves, color illustrations


Industrial ecology; Sustainability

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