A Multiple Case Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Beneficiary Participation in Child-Focused NGOs in the Philippines

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration


Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business


Management and Organization Department

Thesis Advisor

Eppie Clark

Defense Panel Chair

Ma. Paquita Bonnet

Defense Panel Member

Bienvenido Balotro

Ruth Angelie Cruz

Mary Margaret Que

Rachel Quero


Western countries and international bodies promote beneficiaries’ participation in development projects grinding down the conventional notion of beneficiaries as mere recipients. Western literature encourages genuine participation wherein beneficiaries influence, manage resources, make decisions, and control activities that affect their lives (Luyet et al., 2012, Mercelis et al., 2016; Mubita et al., 2017). Conversely, local literature has scarce explanatory research on beneficiary participation. A pilot study concluded that the term and practice of beneficiary participation are uncommon among Philippine nonprofits (Aguiling, 2019). Moreover, the research gap on downward accountability prods the question if people of a high power distance country practice accountability towards beneficiaries. I aimed at examining the phenomenon of beneficiary participation in Philippine non-government organizations (NGOs) using the typology of Ebrahim (2003a). This research investigates beneficiary participation in three child-focused NGOs in the Philippines using an interpretivist philosophy. The key informants’ emphasized children’s rights during data collection. Thus, I included literature on children’s rights and participation under Review of Related Literature. I presented my discovery on said topic under Findings. Finally, I explained the relevance of children participation under Discussion and Synthesis. I analyzed the participatory mechanisms according to the typology of Ebrahim (2003a) and Lansdown (2010).

Through the lens of stakeholder theory, agency theory and Sikolohiyang Pilipino, the study contributes an indigenous model on antecedents and outcomes of beneficiary participation in child-focused NGOs in an Asian country with a high power distance. The antecedents comprise the following: perspective of management on the stakeholder classification of beneficiaries, perspective of beneficiaries on their stakeholder classification, desire for beneficiaries’ self-reliance, and NGO leaders’ trust in beneficiaries. The outcomes are effectiveness and efficiency of services, sustainability of the program, and human development. The research corroborates the unique features of Filipino psyche and indigenous research methods. Finally, this research serves as an impetus for leaders to empower beneficiaries to contribute to NGO programs, and to their own development.

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