Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts in History

Subject Categories

Political History


College of Liberal Arts



Thesis Advisor

Fernando A. Santiago, Jr.

Defense Panel Member

Jose Rhommel B. Hernandez
Michael Charleston B. Chua


This thesis analyzes and contextualizes the immediate effects of Estrada's removal from office on Philippine society by highlighting the united opposition's efforts to oust Estrada in EDSA Dos and the pro-Estrada group's attempt to reinstate him in EDSA Tres which both involved a variety of people from multiple sectors of Philippine society. The thesis identifies the different narratives by the pro- and anti-Estrada camps before, during, and after his ouster by looking at his removal as a result of the convergence of the Philippine political, social, financial, and sectarian elite as the opposition. Therefore, EDSA Dos and EDSA Tres were conflicts for power between the elites, the middle-class, and the masa. EDSA Dos, an elite-led people power protest became successful in removing Estrada from office and opened the way for his arrest. Estrada's arrest had angered the already enraged masa, who had felt unheard and ill-treated by the elites and the middle-class who never understood their plight. EDSA Tres became the counter people power to reinstate their champion to power and to unleash their vengeful rage which had been building for the longest time. The elites on both sides, responsible for financing, supporting, and maintaining fiery passions on both sides, were influential and used the middle-class and the masa to achieve their ulterior ambitions. Without the elites, EDSA Dos and Tres would likely have never happened. Lastly, Estrada's ouster set a dangerous precedent for institutionalizing people power as a legitimate form of bringing social and political change that had undermined Philippine democracy and thus made it further volatile, weak, and fragile.

Abstract Format






Physical Description

iv, 117 leaves


Estrada, Joseph Ejercito, 1937--Impeachment; Philippines—History—1986-

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