Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

Subject Categories

Chemical Engineering


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Chemical Engineering

Thesis Advisor

Joseph R. Ortenero
Allan N. Soriano
Nathaniel P. Dugos

Defense Panel Chair

Vergel C. Bungay

Defense Panel Member

Cynthia F. Madrazo
Gian Paolo O. Bernardo


Lambanog is a popular local drink in the Philippines having various brands of this distilled spirit available in the market; nevertheless, despite its popularity, there is not much research on the properties and components of Lambanog which is important for its characterization. Determining these variables helps enhance the final product quality. For this study, the physico-chemical properties (pH, density, and electrolytic conductivity) and antioxidant activity of Lambanog were evaluated to better profile the liquor. Two brands from the provinces of Batangas (Brand B and E) and three brands from Laguna (Brand A, C, and D), were subjected to pH, density, and conductivity tests at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, and antioxidant activity tests through cyclic voltammetry (CV). The antioxidant activities of the brands were reported in terms of their ascorbic acid equivalents in mg. OriginPro® was used to generate graphs for the different experiments, while SketchAndCalc™ was used to calculate the anodic area for the antioxidant activity experiment. In terms of pH, Brands D and E are acidic (4.66 to 4.99 pH) while Brands A, B, and C are basic (7.48 to 8.55 pH). Brand C exhibits the highest density (0.9467 to 0.9627 g/cm3) while Brand B exhibits the lowest (0.9363 to 0.9557 g/cm3). Furthermore, Brand D has the highest range of conductivities (419.9 to 734.4 μS/cm) while Brand E has the lowest (111.4 to 135.4 μS/cm). For the antioxidant activity, the ascorbic acid equivalents in mg are found to be 532.0, 425.3, 381.4, 563.2, and 284.2 for Brands A to E, respectively. Comparing the voltammograms of Lambanog to other beverages, it was found that set parameters and conditions must be configured to produce the expected peaks from the samples. For future studies, it is recommended to perform chemical characterization to identify the concentrations of alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, acids and ethers. Aside from that, other antioxidant activity methods may be explored to compare the findings with CV. Lastly, determining the physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of other local beverages may be investigated for future research.

Abstract Format







Alcoholic beverages—Analysis; Wine—Composition; Wine—Analysis

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