Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Chemistry

Subject Categories



College of Science



Thesis Advisor

Hilbert D. Magpantay

Defense Panel Member

Raymond S. Malabed
Emmanuel V. Garcia


Muntingia calabura fruit, commonly known as Aratiles fruit in the Philippines, has been regarded as a functional food due to the presence of complex bioactive phytochemicals. Pretreatments of plant materials, nature of extraction solvent, extraction duration, temperature, solvent-to-feed ratio, and extraction repetitions affect the extraction efficiency which are critical factors to preserve the bioactive compound and extend its shelf life. With this, it is important to determine the most optimal extraction method for the quality preservation of this functional food. In this study, the samples were subjected to nonthermal (freeze drying) and thermal drying methods (oven and sun drying). The antioxidant activity of the fruit in response to these drying methods and extraction solvents water, 50% and 100% ethanol, and ethyl acetate was evaluated in vitro using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Based on the results, the OD70 sample extracted at 100% ethanol (IC50 473.67 ± 43.4 µg/mL) and 50% ethanol (IC50 501.6 ± 14.1 µg/mL) showed promising antioxidant potential. Among the parameters presented, the solvent 50% ethanol and drying method freeze-drying resulted in the highest preservation of phenolic compounds (63.82 ± 13.43 mg GAE/g DW). Moreover, the component analysis was carried out using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) wherein phytoconstituents and bioactive components were detected. Although both assays agree that 50% ethanol is the optimal extraction solvent, the DPPH assay suggests that oven-dried fruit samples at 70℃ showed promising antioxidant activity. In contrast, the F-C assay suggests that phenolic compounds are best preserved using freeze-drying. Thus, further validation of results using other antioxidant assays or instrumentation techniques is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging assay, Total Phenolic Content, GC-MS, Aratiles

Abstract Format






Physical Description

117 leaves


Muntingiaceae; Antioxidants

Upload Full Text


Embargo Period


Available for download on Wednesday, December 20, 2023