Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biology major in Medical Biology

Subject Categories



College of Science



Thesis Advisor

Mary Jane C. Flores

Defense Panel Chair

Bridget Co-Arellano

Defense Panel Member

Jessica Joyce R. De Guia
Frumencio F. Co


Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis have been a prevalent health concern within endemic nations as both parasitic infections have affected over a third of the global population, with both pregnant women and children being the most vulnerable in contracting these diseases. Despite the available information, little is known about the specific clinical presentations and deficient micronutrients commonly exhibited by those affected. With this, the study aimed to determine the most prevalent clinical presentations, deficient micronutrients, and risk factors closely associated with the prevalence of both diseases. A chi-square test was done to assess the significance of the association of each infection to the identified conditions, micronutrients, and factors; association strength was then determined based on Cramer’s V values. Statistical testing revealed that the most prevalent clinical presentations of STH in children are related to disruptions in growth and development, along with inflammation (p < 0.0001), while for pregnant women it was mainly anemia. Schistosomiasis in both groups more commonly exhibits conditions related to the gastrointestinal area, but children manifest other presentations such as hematuria and anemia. The deficient micronutrients among STH-infected pregnant women and children were iron and vitamin A. No significant association was found between the micronutrient status and STH infection (p = 0.0701). A weak association was found between micronutrient deficiency and schistosomiasis (V = 0.0564), having vitamin A deficiency as the most prevalent. STH prevalence is mainly influenced by rural residence, irregular handwashing, and the non-use of latrines. Conversely, illiteracy and untreated water were linked with schistosomiasis infection. Overall, this review highlights the capability of STH and schistosomiasis to induce broad clinical effects on host health and nutrition. The prevalence of both infections is influenced by sociodemographic, behavioral, and hygienic factors. Cost-effective interventions, proper awareness and education, and sufficient research must therefore be done to provide sustainable defense and reduction of infections.

Abstract Format






Physical Description

90 leaves


Helminthiasis; Schistosomiasis; Trace elements in nutrition; Children--Health and hygiene; Maternal health services

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