Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering

Subject Categories

Civil Engineering | Structural Engineering


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Civil Engineering

Thesis Adviser

Jonathan R. Dungca

Defense Panel Chair

Ronaldo S. Gallardo

Defense Panel Member

Alexis M. Fillone
Mary Ann Q. Adajar


The Philippines has an extensive road network which handles most of its passenger and freight movements. In line with this, large volumes of aggregate embankment materials of good quality are required to primarily support these transport infrastructures. Converting in-situ rocks into aggregates apparently poses threat to the environment and natural resources. Thus, coal combustion by-products (CCPs) are seen to be its potential alternative mainly due to its vast production and disposal problems in the country. According to studies, when handled and disposed of properly, these by-products do not present a public health or environmental threat. Hence, the use of coal ash as a recycled material in a variety of applications has both economical and environmentally beneficial impacts. Representative samples of class C fly ash and bottom ash were gathered together with conventional road base materials. Fly ashes were substituted to act as fines; whereas, bottom ash substitutions were varied at different mixture ratios of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of fine aggregates. Index properties (i .e. specific gravity, Atterberg limits, maximum and minimum index densities, and compaction characteristics), unsoaked and soaked California Bearing Ratios (CBR), and hydraulic conductivities were iv obtained for all the blends in order to produce empirical relationships with varying bottom ash content. Results show that the optimum strength can be produced at a blend of 100% bottom ash. However, permeability tests show a considerable decline in hydraulic conductivity with the addition of coal ashes to the typical aggregates. Thus, proper drainage must be carefully applied to these blended embankment materials so as to avoid substantial ingress of water.

Abstract Format






Electronic File Format


Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

155 leaves, illustrations


Waste products as road materials—Testing; Fly ash—Testing

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