Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in English Language Education

Subject Categories

Language and Literacy Education | Other English Language and Literature


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Dept of English and Applied Linguistics

Thesis Adviser

Cecilia F. Genuino

Defense Panel Chair

Rochelle Irene G. Lucas

Defense Panel Member

Eden Regala Flores
Jennifer T. De Ramos


The present study investigated how Asian learners of English use linking adverbials in terms of form, meaning, and position in their argumentative essays. Data analyzed were obtained from the International Corpus Network of Asian Learners of English (ICNALE). Since the study was anchored on Corpus Linguistics, concordance software was used to account for the frequency of occurrences of the linking adverbials in terms of form, meaning, and position. Patterns emerging from the frequencies were identified to describe the similarities and differences of linking adverbial use across Asian learner Englishes. Results revealed that the top three most common forms are single adverbs, prepositional phrases, and adverb phrases. In terms of meaning, data revealed that single adverbs were usually used to enumerate, add, infer, or show result. In some instances, adverb phrases were, likewise, used to enumerate or add or show summation. Appositions are realized mostly by prepositional phrases. The finite and non-finite clause forms are the rarest forms across the corpus. In terms of learner English varieties, Japanese learners tend to vary more in the forms that they are using. However, Pakistani learners tend to be more conservative opting for certain forms only. Categorizing learner Englishes according to Kachru’s circles, both the outer circle and the expanding circle share a similar pattern of the type of form to use. It is clear that both circles use single adverbs primarily followed by prepositional phrases.

In the study of meaning categories, the top three most frequent meaning categories are enumeration/addition, result/inference, and contrast/concession. Summation and transition linking adverbials are rare meaning categories in the corpus. Almost all the Asian learners of English follow similar patterns in terms of meaning. They use linking adverbials to enumerate, add, and

summarize. In terms of differences, learners form Thailand showed a different pattern of using the meaning categories. They preferred to use linking adverbials to show result or inference more frequently than to enumerate. It was also found that the learners from the expanding circle varieties preferred to use linking adverbials to express result, inference, and transition in contrast with the learners from the outer circle varieties who preferred to use linking adverbials that express contrast or concession more frequently. In the study of position, most linking adverbials in the corpus are placed in the initial position. There is also a substantial frequency of linking adverbials in the medial position. The final position is a rare position in the corpus. In examining individual linking adverbials, positional categories emerge. There are linking adverbials occurring in all positions, occurring in the initial and medial positions only, occurring in the initial position only, and occurring in the medial position only. In terms of learner English varieties, learners from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan prefer to place linking adverbials in the initial position. Meanwhile, learners from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Philippines prefer to place linking adverbials more in the medial position.

Abstract Format






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English language—Adverbials; English language—Study and teaching—Asia; English language—Study and teaching—Foreign speakers

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