Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Biology

Subject Categories



College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Mary Jane C. Flores

Defense Panel Chair

Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

Defense Panel Member

Eligio Santiago V. Maghirang
Vicente Y. Belizano, Jr.


Aetas are one of the Indigenous peoples in the Philippines that greatly depend on agricultural activities such as swine production. However, information on the intestinal helminthiasis among Aetas and their domesticated swine as well as the practices of Aetas on hygiene, sanitation and pig management are very limited. This study aimed to determine the intestinal helminths infecting Aetas and swine. Fecal samples from 223 Aetas and 27 swine were collected in Brgy. Villa Maria, Porac, Pampanga. Formalin-Tween Concentration technique and Concentration McMaster technique were performed to qualitatively determine the intestinal helminth infections in Aetas and swine, respectively. Questionnaire data on demographic characteristics and practices of Aetas on hygiene, sanitation and pig management were gathered. An overall prevalence of 71.3% of intestinal helminth infection was recorded among Aetas with Ascaris spp. as the most prevalent (65.4%), followed by Trichuris spp. (54.7%) and hookworm (44.0%) as the least prevalent among the intestinal helminths identified. Males were more likely to be infected with Trichuris spp., hookworm (OR= 1.84, 1.74, p = < 0.05) and Trichuris spp. + hookworm co-infection (OR = 3.96, p = 0.031) than females. Aetas aged 5-14 were more likely to be infected with Trichuris spp. (OR= 2.63, 2.08, p = < 0.05) than Aetas aged 0-4 and 15-64 as well as with hookworm (OR =5.11, p = 0.022) and Ascaris spp. + Trichuris spp. co-infection (OR= 2.62, p = 0.022) than Aetas aged 0-4 and 15-64, respectively. Aetas aged 15-64 were more likely to be infected with Ascaris spp. + hookworm (OR= 5.00, p = 0.025) than Aetas aged 5-14. Toilet usage was significantly associated with the prevalence of intestinal helminth infection among Aetas. Thus, individuals that do not use toilet were more likely to be infected with intestinal helminths (OR = 6.75, p = 0.025). On the otherhand, the overall prevalence determined among the examined swine was 96.3%. Three types of intestinal helminths and one type of intestinal protozoan were identified in swine, namely, Ascaris spp. (53.8%), Trichuris spp. (61.5%), hookworm (84.6%) and Coccidia spp. (50.0%). Free-range, practice disposal of swine manure, buried swine dung in soil, absence of veterinary visitation, water provision and swill feeding were the most common pig management practices of Aetas. The comparable presence of Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and hookworm in Aetas and their domesticated swine as well as data on poor practices of Aetas on hygiene, sanitation and pig management may suggest possible occurrence of zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in the community. Therefore, comprehensive molecular techniques in establishing the identity of the helminths are highly recommended to ascertain possible zoonotic infections between humans and swine. Data from these molecular approaches may be used to formulate strategies that would better monitor and evaluate zoonosis, particularly in indigenous peoples communities.

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Helminthiasis; Aeta (Philippine people)—Health and hygiene

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