What does it take to make a difference: A study on the effect of demographic characteristics and leadership styles of instructional leaders on teacher effectiveness and student performance of BSA schools in Mindanao

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Accountancy


Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business



Thesis Adviser

Rodiel C. Ferrer

Defense Panel Member

Mark Vincent Bendo
Franklin Ramirez
Brian C. Gozun


Generally, this study aimed to ascertain whether the gender of instructional leaders and their choice of leadership styles significantly affect the level of teacher effectiveness and student performance among BS Accountancy schools in Mindanao. Leadership styles are identified through three leadership theories namely the Full Range Model of Leadership, Fuller Full Range Model of Leadership and Four-Frame Leadership Theory. Gender is measured as a binary variable where gender is 1 for females. On one hand, teacher effectiveness is measured through job satisfaction, job performance and self-efficacy. Student performance is measured through the average of the schools BLECPA rating on 2012-2016. Forty-two (42) schools throughout the five regions (Zamboanga is not included) in Mindanao were communicated but only twenty-one (21) responded, therefore a fifty-percent (50%) response rate.

Descriptive statistics such as the mean, median and standard deviation Spearman rho correlation coefficient and ordinal multinomial logit regression were used to analyze the data. Results showed that instructional leaders were mostly females. Also, respondents had relatively high scores in transformational leadership, instrumental leadership, and the human resource frame leadership, among others.

There were no significant variables found to affect job satisfaction and job performance. Meanwhile, idealized influence-attribute (p-value=0.045629), intellectual stimulation (p-value=0.037041), management by exception-active (p-value=0.025615) and the political frame (p-value=0.028837) increases composite self-efficacy while individualized consideration (p-value=0.009205), and strategy formulation (p-value=0.044739) decreases composite self-efficacy. Females are more likely to exhibit inspirational motivation (p-value=0.091), individualized consideration (p-value=0.012), contingent reward (p-value=0.007), and outcome monitoring (p-value=0.081) more than males. Gender, however, was not found to significantly affect school outcomes except self-efficacy on classroom management, specifically, male instructional leaders were found to increase such dependent variable (p-value=0.019339). Laissez-faire leadership (p-value=0.08400) and four-frame leadership (p-value=0.03600) decreases student performance.

This study suggests that universities and colleges revisit their qualification in appointing personnel for deanship and chairpersonship, avoid gender-bias in appointing instructional leaders, and initiate training programs and seminars in instructional leadership. Instructional leaders are also encouraged to be keen in the leadership approaches and behavior they exhibit.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

x, 303 pages ; 30 cm.


Accounting--Study and teaching--Philippines--Mindanao

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