Characterization of the effect of urbanization of Metro Manila on local weather and climate of selected urban and rural areas using WRFV3.4.1

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Physics


College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Edgar A. Vallar

Defense Panel Chair

Maria Cecila Galvez

Defense Panel Member

Gil Nonato Santos
Gerry Bagtasa


The effect of urbanization of Metro Manila particularly to the amount of heat flux, rainfall and temperature of selected urban and rural areas was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Version 3.4.1 (WRFV3.4.1) model. The NCEP FNL grib 1 data of 2000 to 2010 were used as input in the model for meteorological data. The Mann-Kendal trend test (M-K test) was incorporated to verify the significance of the trends while the Sens slope estimator quantified the measured trends.

Results showed that, on the average, the heat flux of Metro Manila is about 1.5x10, J/m higher than in the selected areas. The occurrence of urban heat islands effects was detected in Metro Manila by comparing the difference in the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of urban and rural areas. These are around 0.4C to 2.4 C and 0.83 C to 2.3 C, respectively. Metro Manila recorded 11 year higher average values of rainfall during the summer season (8% to 64%) rainy season (15% to 305%) and transition season (8% to 232%) when compared with selected areas from 25 km up to 100km from Manila. It was also found that nearby areas (25km) are affected by urbanization. However, the p-values for the three parameters in each of the sites selected in the study are greater than the set significant value of 0.05.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

114 leaves ; illustrations (some colored) ; 28 cm.

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