Cindy A. Chan

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Guidance and Counseling

Subject Categories



Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Counseling and Educational Psychology

Thesis Adviser

Rose Marie S. Clemena

Defense Panel Chair

Jose Alberto S. Reyes

Defense Panel Member

Naomi R. Ruiz
Carmelita P. Pabiton


Social support appraisal and network orientation are studied in relation to help-seeking behaviors and attitudes. Consideration is based on the reported underutilization of support resources among Asian-Americans (Tracey, Leong & Glidden, 1986 Sue, 1994) and lack of studies on Asian help-seeking (Li, 1992). Support appraisal refers to the satisfaction of the support received and with the belief that one is cared for, and respected by family, friends and others (Vaux, 1985b). Network Orientation is the set of beliefs, attitudes and expectations concerning the potential usefulness of network members in time of need (Tolsdorf, 1976).

Attitudinal constructs of 369 Chinese-Filipino high school students were determined through the completion of self-constructed questionnaire, Social Support Appraisal (SSA), Network Orientation (NOS) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH) scales. Two hundred forty one of them fitted the criteria of help-seekers (Rosales, 1989). Females were more open in seeking help from others as compared to males. Here within, support appraisal has a relation with choice of helpers as well as with coping strategy. Satisfaction of help received from family or the support group as a whole is related to the choice of parents as helper. In the event of dissatisfaction, teachers or friends are considered as alternatives. Satisfaction with support received from friends lessens crying as a means of coping. Thus, help given by significant people contributes greatly to the alleviation of stress. Both support appraisal and network orientation were related to attitudes toward professional psychological help. The subjects did not view school counselors as different from other support givers. Number of contact, types of problem, higher regard for well-being rather than cultural observance were some of the factors associated.

With the conflicting result of the relation between network orientation and the decision to seek help as well as the lowering incidence of work-oriented coping, a source specific support group scale is encouraged. Nevertheless, introduction of other possible support giving body, such as the setup of school counseling center, is helpful in lessening the stigma of seeking outside help. Overtime, exposure and experience with help-giving bodies affect the formation and retention of support groups. Furthermore, adult guidance is still highly regarded by the youths even though they are characterized as being peer-based. with this, family and school are considered vital units of the society. Information campaigns such as parenting seminars can be given by the school in strengthening family ties. Outreach programs such as the establishment of counseling centers or information about the importance of seeking help would prove beneficial for the youth in giving proper guidance.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

68 numb. leaves


Support (Domestic relations); Help-seeking behavior; Interpersonal relations

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