Development and validation of modules for teaching photosynthesis in college biology

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Teaching Major in Biology

Subject Categories



Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education


This study deals on the development and formative evaluation of part course sequential modules on photosynthesis.Three modules patterned from the University of the Philippines Learning Resources Unit Modules were developed and used to determine their effectiveness in teaching photosynthesis in college biology. Their contents were based on the General Botany syllabus of the Life Science Department, Central Philippine University, Iloilo City.The try-out was conducted involving 41 college students enrolled in General Botany course at Central Philippine University on March 9-17, 1999. A team of evaluators composed of college students and teachers evaluated the modules according to a set of objectives, subject matter, clarity of explanations, design characteristics, effectiveness and test methodology.The research procedure consisted of the following 1) selection of the topic 2) development of the modules 3) try-out 4) evaluation, and 5) analysis of the data. Analysis of comparison was done using t-test to find out the significant difference on students' achievement before and after using the modules.

Results revealed that the t computed (tc=10.3789) was greater than the t critical value (t=2.021 at 40 df) at .05 level hence, the null hypothesis was rejected. This means there was a significant difference in the achievement of students after using the modules. This also indicates that the use of the modules is an effective method for teaching photosynthesis. Results indicate the students' strong agreement on the type of instructional approach introduced to them. Teachers' evaluation of the modules implies, too, that the modular approach is an effective instructional method. Moreover, teacher evaluators support the idea that this instructional material can be developed for classroom use. The adoption of the Flesch Readability Formula revealed that module I was fairly easy, module II was standard, and module III, fairly difficult. The researcher concluded that the use of the modular approach enables students to be more self-reliant and independent.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

57 numb. leaves


Biology--Study and teaching; Teaching effectiveness; Teaching--Aids and devices

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