Selected Lumad women's views on childbirth difficulties

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Health Social Science

Subject Categories

Indigenous Education | Social Work | Women's Studies


College of Liberal Arts


Behavioral Sciences

Thesis Adviser

Ma. Elena Chiong Javier

Defense Panel Chair

Dr. Robert Anthony C. Salazar

Defense Panel Member

Dr. Rene D. Somera
Dr. Cecilia S. Acuin


This study examines and describes selected Lumad women's views on childbirth difficulties including their definition and their perceived etiology of such difficulties. Recognition and management of difficult births are also described. Data were obtained from the Bgy. Lupiagan, Sumilao in the province of Bukidnon. Purposive sampling and convenience sampling were used to identify the respondents of the study. In-depth interviews were completed with seven Lumad women. Key informant interviews were done with all three Lumad traditional birth attendants (TBA) in the community. A focus group discussion (FGD) with six other Lumad women was also conducted. Interview guides were used for the interviews and a discussion guide for the FGD. The findings show that the selected Lumad women interviewed are between the ages of 21 and 42. All the women interviewees are farmers and most of them at least five years of formal schooling. The women tend to marry early from the age of 14 to 18 years, but they do not get pregnant until after one to five years. They have about one to seven children who are still living, but the number of pregnancies ranges from two to nine. Spacing between each birth is about one to three years. Prenatal care from a health station is irregular. Among the seven, three were able to experience childbirth difficulties. From the above characteristics, it is only education that seems to have a bearing on how the Lumad women recognize the difficulties.

Data gathered about Lumad childbirth beliefs and practices from the three types of respondents did not have much difference. All of the respondents admitted to having a Lumad TBA to assist their delivery. Signs of labor include pain in the pelvic area, rupture of membranes, uncontrollable shaking and uterine contractions. Delivery position is reclining with one or two pillows under the head. Procedures to facilitate delivery include fundal pressure. The umbilical cord is cut using the rattan and this is done only after the placenta is expelled. The placenta is commonly buried under the house. Still another practice is to perform a ritual everytime a woman becomes pregnant. The data indicate that Lumad conceptions of childbirth difficulties are different from the biomedical description of childbirth difficulties or complications. Childbirth is normal if the baby comes out and the entire placenta after, if labor does not take too long and if there is less pain. Abnormal childbirth is when there is difficulty in letting the baby out such as during malpresentation. Prolonged labor is also considered a difficult birth. Bughat is included as a serious illness postpartum. Most of these difficult births are attributed to spirits and souls. Thus, Managing the difficulties include the performance of rituals and use of some medicinal plants. Studies such as this, but with a larger sample are encouraged. In terms of intervention, the Lumad women including the TBAs need more knowledge about childbirth difficulties. It should be noted what whatever training that is conducted should be culturally appropriate and should respect the differences in the worldview of the Lumad with that of the biomedical framework of health and illness.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

106 leaves


Childbirth -- Folklore; Labor (Obstetrics); Birth customs; Public health; Perception

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