The concept of Filipino loob: implications to philosophy of education

Date of Publication


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Philosophy

Subject Categories



College of Liberal Arts



Thesis Adviser

Dr. Florentino Timbreza

Defense Panel Chair

, Dr. Rolando Gripaldo

Defense Panel Member

Dr. Eduardo M. Domingo
Dr. Claro Ceniza


Fr. Leonardo Mercado observed (1977) that our Filipino students, after spending practically 14 years in school, are alienated from their own culture. They speak in English, look up at American and European personalities as models, and eventually migrate because their intellectual homeland is abroad. Fr. Mercado attributes this phenomenon to the Western and foreign models of philosophies of education. As such, there is a compelling need to define philosophy of education in terms of cultural background. Cultural approach to education aims to explain concepts of learning as lived and viewed by the particular man in a particular reality. Education must look at the nature of the individual men (Mercado 1977:78). And what common ground can all Filipinos, regardless of religion, agree upon to stick together? It is the road towards the Filipino loob. Loob cannot be univocally defined with a single term but rather a conglomeration of the different elements within man. It includes dama, isip, malay, budhi, bait, kalooban, and ugali. Loob, in other words, is the totality of the self. It is the inner principle of who a person is. Furthermore, loob is a world in itself that has lawak, lalim, and laman. It is capable of reaching out sa abot-kaya in order to response to the call of the situation because it has neither boundary nor limit in its creativity, capacity to understand and accept the kapwa-loob as part of its world. As such, loob has the capacity to lumawak, lumalim, maglaman pa o kumitid, bumabaw o mawalan ng laman depending on how loob opens itself to other loob.

Loob is structured towards integration. It is in this integration of loob or pag-buo ng loob Filipino can find the reason to exist, the reason to be happy. Buo ang loob is a term that encompasses so many positive traits and thus must be pursued. By the very essence of the word buo, it presupposes completeness, strength and firmness. It is strong conviction accompanied by committed courses of action. It is the end-result of a complete process of decision making and not just the spur of the moment thinking. Therefore, it gives birth to a wise choice that minimizes confusion, discord, and conflict. As such, it leads to an orderly, peaceful way of life. The teleology of loob is towards integration. Education is not only to transmit technical-know-how in order to earn money. Basically it includes formation of what is inherent in oneself, a drawing out of what is fundamentally good, true and beautiful within so as to lead an orderly, happy, peaceful and meaningful life. It is the formation of loob or to be succint, it is pagbuo ng loob that can provide this meaningful life every Filipino is looking for. Since loob is the totality of the Filipino personhood that encompasses all (malay, dama, isip, atbp.) that is inherent in him, it is but proper to say that loob is the object of formation. Filipino graduate must mature in his kamalayan, dama, and isip at paninindigan sa abot-kaya as the demonstration of one's buong loob. The goal of Filipino education is to fully develop the Filipino abot kaya character so as to prepare him to live in a society governed by pluralism in every aspect of life.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

108 numb. leaves


Filipino personality; Education -- Philosophy; Perception; Concepts

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