Development and validation of a mathematics literacy test for Filipino elementary school graduates

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Mathematics

Subject Categories

Science and Mathematics Education


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Melecio Deauna

Defense Panel Chair

Maxima Acelajado

Defense Panel Member

Filma Brawner
Yolando B. Beronque
Auxencia Limjap
Robert Roleda


This study focuses on the development and validation of an instrument with a corresponding norm, which can be used to describe the comparative level of mathematics literacy of a Filipino elementary school graduate. The developed Mathematics Literacy Test (MLT) covered the mathematics concepts and skills included in the curriculum and minimum learning competencies as prescribed by the DECS. The number of items allocated for each topic and its corresponding behavioral skills were based on two factors: (a) extent and depth of how the concept/skill is taught based on the curriculum and (b) relevance and usefulness of the specific concepts and skills in the daily life of an average Filipino elementary school graduate. The validation of the try-out forms was administered to incoming 1,841 first year high school students from 20 different public and private schools in NCR, Regions 3 and 4. The difficulty and discrimination indices of each item were tested and only those 50 items that conformed with the table specification and has acceptable discrimination and difficulty indices were included in the final form. Results of the study showed that the developed and validated math literacy test had the following characteristics: a) An average difficulty index of 0.53 and an average discrimination index of .40, indicating moderately difficult test items b) A mean score of 26.61 with a standard deviation of 7.16, implying that 68% of the respondents got a score between 19.45 and 33.77 c) A value of 0.12 for the standard error of the mean, implying that the size approximates the normal distribution of the population d) A reliability coefficient of 0.81 signified reliability and consistency and, chance selection did not influenced the way the students answered e) A validity coefficient of 0.80, signifying a high correlation and agreement between the MLT scores and the respondent's grades in mathematics f) Practicable and employable in that it is easy to administer, easy to score and, minimal costs involved in its reproduction. The study concluded that the developed and validated MLT is a refined, valid, reliable and good instrument to measure the elementary school graduate's capability to apply and deal with practical situations requiring specified math concepts and skills.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

201 leaves ; 28 cm.


Examinations -- Validity; Mathematics; Elementary school graduates -- Philippines; Examinations -- Interpretation

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