The measurable effects of a process-led approach on achievement, science process skills, and task context among students of chemistry

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Chemistry

Subject Categories



Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Melecio C. Deauna

Defense Panel Chair

Jaime Raul O. Janairo

Defense Panel Member

Clovia Isabel Z. Holdsworth
Maricar S. Prudente
Adora S. Pili
Bee Ching U. Ong


This quasi-experimental research investigates the comparative effects of two contrasting approaches using the Process-Led and the Content-Led approaches in developing students' science process skills in school and everyday contexts, and in understanding chemistry concepts.Four science processes were identified - formulating hypotheses, controlling variables, interpreting data, and predicting. The study adopted the posttest-only-control group design using achievement scores. Significant differences in process skills development in school and everyday contexts and chemistry content knowledge were determined. Additional data were obtained from qualitative sources which included the group interview and student's laboratory report to further support the quantitative results by eliciting the students' perceptions and feelings toward the instructional approaches and insights on the development on science process skills.The sample consisted of four intact classes composed of two BS Mechanical Engineering and two Industrial Management Engineering enrolled in general and inorganic chemistry at the Western Mindanao State University in Zamboanga City. Three major research instruments were used for data gathering--two forms of Test of Science Process Skills (School Chemistry and Everyday Chemistry Contexts) and the Test on Chemistry Content Knowledge. Students' posttest scores were statistically treated using Analysis of Covariance. The Pearson Product Correlation was also used to establish association between the two dependent variables.

Analysis of results at the .05 level of significance showed the following findings: 1) students taught with emphasis on science process skills performed better in the Test of Science Process Skills than students taught without emphasis on science process skills 2) students taught by the Process-Led Approach scored higher in the test on Chemistry content knowledge than students taught by the Content-Led Approach 3) students who received instruction on science process skills performed equally well in the sciences processes in the school and everyday contexts 4) significant differences in the students' adjusted posttest mean scores in school and everyday contexts were found among those taught with the process-led approach for each skill except

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

178 leaves, 28 cm. ; Computer print-out (phtocopy)


Academic achievement; Intellect; Ability--Testing; College students; Chemistry--Study and teaching

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