Optics experiments for secondary schools using diode laser as source of light

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Physics

Subject Categories

Optics | Physics


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Bee Ching U. Ong

Defense Panel Chair

Robert C. Roleda

Defense Panel Member

Reuben V. Quiroga
Manuel Eugenio
Melecio C. Deauna
Adelaida L. Bago


This study aims to improvise equipment for optics experiments with diode laser as the main source of light, and to make and evaluate a laboratory manual on optics experiments, for use in secondary schools. The improvised optics equipment was based on reflection, refraction, thin lenses, mirror, interference, diffraction, polarization, and optical instruments. Using these topics and the improvised optics equipment, eighteen experiments were designed with diode laser as source of light. These experiments are categorized into ten basic, five intermediate, and three optional. The basic experiments are mandatory for students to perform while the intermediate and optional experiments are intended for class demonstrations. This study used the descriptive-evaluative design. It was divided into three phases: planning, development, and evaluative phases. The planning phase covered the selection of topics in optics, design of equipment, and design of laboratory procedures. The development phase covered the writing of the experiments, improvising and the testing of the prototype equipment, internal evaluation of the manual by the experts. The evaluative phase included the try out of the manual by students, the evaluation of the laboratory manual, final production of the equipment and the manual, and conduct readability test on the manual.

The four evaluation instruments were: LM Evaluation Scales for Students (LMESS), LM Evaluation Scales for Teachers - 1 (LMEST-1), LM Evaluation Scales for Teachers - 2 (LMEST-2), and Experiment Quizzes. The first three instruments were based upon the content and instructional characteristics of the manual. The content characteristics included the objectives, clarity, and relevance. The instructional characteristics covered the design, degree of students' participation, effectiveness, applicability, and testing method. The first three instruments were designed based on the studies of Ong (1990) and Figuerres (1994). Two groups of respondents were involved: 11 physics instructors and 17 students chosen at random from 45 fourth year students (IV-Rizal) of Las Pinas East National High School (AY 1996-97). The students were involved in the try out, using the ten basic experiments of the manual, after which the students evaluated the manual using the LMESS. A five-item quiz was given every after performing an experiment. The students answered the laboratory report of each experiment. Of the 11 teachers, 5 are secondary and 6 are tertiary instructors. They evaluated the manual using LMEST-1 and L-MEST-2.The mean, standard deviation, and Kendall's coefficient of correlation were used to analyze the data. The study revealed the following: 1) Optics equipment can be improvised using compact, lightweight, affordable, and durable local materials. 2) The laboratory manual on optics experiments can be made with the use of improvised equipment and with diode laser as source of light. 3) The laboratory manual can help facilitate learning the basic concepts of optics in the secondary level. 4) The manual has a readability level equivalent to the first and second year high school.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

104 numb. leaves, 28 cm. + ; laboratory manual


Optics; Physics--Experiments; Lasers; Light sources; Education, Secondary

This document is currently not available here.