Values clarification, person-centered, and moralizing approach in group counseling for high school student with low achievement motivation

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology

Subject Categories



Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Counseling and Educational Psychology

Thesis Adviser

Gundelina A. Velazco

Defense Panel Chair

Naomi R. Ruiz

Defense Panel Member

Carmelita Pabiton
Salud P. Evangelista
Ma. Belen L. Vergara
Imelda V.G. Villar


A group counseling with high school students is conducted to determine as well as to compare the effectiveness of values clarification, person-centered, and moralizing approaches in enhancing the students' need to achieve (N-ach) and in improving their academic performance.The randomized waitlist pretest-posttest control group research design was utilized. A group of 60 students with the lowest scores in N-ach were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Two instruments -- Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) and Achievement Motivation Profile (AMI) -- were used to measure the respondents' need to achieve before and after the intervention. Changes in academic performance were measured by the grade point average (GPA) in Math, Physics, English, and Indonesian. All data were subjected to two-way repeated measure design and to one-way ANCOVA. Data were computed using the least difference (LSD) at .01 level.The findings showed that Values Clarification, Client-Centered, and Moralizing approaches were all effective in enhancing the need to achieve. This was measured by EPPS and AMP. Moralizing, however, was the only approach found effective in improving academic performance. Such was shown by the improvement of the Ss' GPA in English. In terms of effectiveness, Moralizing ranked first. This was followed by Client-Centered, and then Values Clarification.

The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Cognitive functions, on which moralizing approach operated was more effective in controlling one's behavior (2) Today's Indonesian adolescents were still dependent on adults' advice and, (3) The effectiveness of an approach was limited to certain variables.The study recommends the following actions: (1) Prepare students appropriately before applying values clarification approach in class (2) Consider the expectations of the subjects in selecting the approach (3) Investigate the cost and benefit of giving advice in counseling (4) Incorporate values clarification in moralizing approach (5) Validate the finding of the study in a more heterogeneous sample (6) Derive the collected GPA from the tests and exams after the completion of the whole intervention program, and (7) Investigate variables which are capable of bringing achievement behavior.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

206 leaves ; Computer print-out


Values; Group counseling; High school students; Achievement motivation; Academic achievement

This document is currently not available here.