The effectiveness of Carkhuff's Human Resource Training and Ivey's micro-counseling models on paraprofessional counselors' performance

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology

Subject Categories

Counseling | Human Resources Management | Training and Development


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Counseling and Educational Psychology

Defense Panel Chair

Naomi Ruiz

Defense Panel Member

Gundelina Velazco
Leticia Ho
Conchita Umali
Imelda Villar


This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of Carkhuff's Human Resource Training and Ivey's Microcounseling models in improving the Marian Youth Movement (MYM) animators' counselor performance in terms of counseling climate, counselor comfort and client satisfaction, as experienced by clients and as perceived by the independent raters.The study used the Pretest-Posttest-Control group Design.The subjects of this study originally consisted of 75 MYM animators from 27 out of 58 participating high schools within the Archdiocese of Manila. Due to dropouts and technical problems, the final sample consisted of: 11 subjects for Carkhuff's Human Resource Training (HRT) 15 participants who completed the first three days of Ivey's Microcounselling model, 8 who completed the first four days, and 5 who completed the whole training of 5 days and 12 subjects in the no-training control group.A total of 96 clients participated in this study: 48 for the pre- and 48 for the post-training, randomly and evenly assigned to the experimental and control groups of counselors. Each experimental group underwent training for 25 hours. The counselors of the experimental and control group conducted pre- and post-training counseling sessions of 20 to 30 minutes each. The videotaped sessions were viewed by the independent raters for the evaluations of the counselors before and after training. Counseling effectiveness was measured by the Counseling Evaluation Inventory (CEI), in terms of counseling climate, counselor comfort and client satisfaction, based on client perceptions and the independent raters' evaluations of animators before and after training.

The Sign Test revealed that the counselors exposed to counselor training using either Carkhuff's Human Resource Training (HRT) or Ivey's Microcounseling model (3- or 4- day training), showed gains in ratings (p.01), whereas counselors who were not exposed to training did not show gains in ratings in counselor climate, counsilor comfort, and client satisfaction as perceived by clients and independent raters.The Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance revealed that counselors who underwent training, using either model, were rated higher (p.01) on these variables than counselors who did not undergo training.From the results of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:1. Carkhuff's Human Resource Training (HRT) and Ivey's Microcounseling model (whether conducted for 3 or 4 days) were effective in improving facilitative conditions in counseling provided by teacher-youth animators.2. Facilitative conditions as empathy, warmth, acceptance, genuineness, positive regard, respect and concreteness, considered to be the core dimensions of counseling, are important in establishing a counseling base from which to work with clients.3. Trained counselors can function better as counselors than those who do not undergo training.4. The Counseling Evaluation Inventory (CEI) is a useful instrument in measuring counseling effectiveness based on client perception of counselors.5. Client perceptions of his/her counseling experience and independent raters' perceptions of councilors' performance offer valuable data in evaluating counseling effectiveness.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

237 leaves ; Computer print-out


Counselors; Counseling; Paraprofessionals in social service—In-service training; Social service; Public welfare; Manpower policy

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