Effects of training in cognitive development and/or problem solving on the cognitive levels, problem solving ability, and achievement in basic Mathematics of freshman Bachelor of Elementary Education students

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Mathematics

Subject Categories

Elementary Education | Mathematics


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Melecio Deauna

Defense Panel Chair

Severino B.Diesto

Defense Panel Member

Bee Ching U. Ong
Fe De la Rosa
Elizabeth Ong


Using 144 freshman college students majoring in Elementary Education and taking up Basic Mathematics 2, this experimental study investigates the effects of training in cognitive development and/or training in problem solving in 3 criteria variables: cognitive level, mathematical performance, and problem solving ability. Also, it investigated significant differences in performance, if any, in the criteria variables of students who belonged to the lower and upper performance positions in pre-test scores in basic mathematics. The pre-test--posttest control group randomized design, Design 4, by Campbell and Stanley (1963) was used. The experiment lasted 30 hours distributed during the 2nd semester, SY 1990-91. Cognitive levels of students were significantly (Alpha=.05) enhanced when trained in cognitive development, problem solving, or in both than when they were not trained in any at all. Similarly, cognitive levels of students were better enhanced when trained solely in cognitive development than when trained in problem solving alone. The enhancement of the cognitive levels was significantly better among students who belonged to the upper performance position in the pretest in basic mathematics than those in the lower performance position. No significant interaction existed between the two factors--training and performance position--in the prediction of success in cognitive development.

Achievement in basic mathematics of students was better improved when they were trained in any of the three trainings, namely: cognitive development, problem solving, and both, than when they were not trained in any of these. The achievement in mathematics of those who participated in any of the trainings did not differ. Those who belonged to the upper performance position in the pre-test in basic mathematics did not differ in achievement in mathematics from those who belonged to the lower position. Furthermore, there is no significant interaction between type of training and performance position in the prediction of success in basic mathematics.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

241 leaves, 28 cm.


Cognition--Tests and scales; Problem solving; College freshmen; Mathematical ability--Testing; Education, Elementary--Study & teaching; Mathematics--Teacher training

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