Effects of existential-humanistic counseling on attitudes toward self, self-esteem, self-actualization

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology

Subject Categories

Counseling Psychology


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Counseling and Educational Psychology

Thesis Adviser

Imelda V. G. Villa

Defense Panel Chair

Salud P. Evangelista

Defense Panel Member

Rose Marie Salazar-Clemena
Natividad Munarriz
Conchita V. Umali
Natividad A. Dayan


The subjects of the study were 12 third year college students selected by purposive sampling 4 males and 8 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 20 years old. The matched-control group consisted of 5 males and 7 females of the same age range as the subjects of the counseling group. The participants of the study were matched according to the following variables: age, intelligence, socioeconomic and educational background of parents. The study was quasi-experimental (N=1) research repeated 12 times which utilized pretest-retest-posttests on the own-control, matched-control and counseling groups. It was an idiographic research that made use of test profiles to describe individual feelings, reactions and behavior of subjects during counseling sessions. Individual counseling was used as an approach to the treatment of cases. Collection of data were made through psychological testing, behavior assessment during sessions, case notes, counseling transcripts based on tape-recorded sessions and feedback sessions. Four standardized tests were used to assess improvements on the dependent variables of the study. These were the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Pasao Self-Concept Rating Scale, Tennessee Self-Concept, and the Personal Orientation Inventory. For statistical analysis of data, mean and t score were used. T-test was used to test the hypotheses. For generalizability of findings, group results were presented and analyzed. Individual cases were presented to determine specific effects of the treatment variable on individual subjects and to gain insights on how to plan better counseling interventions using Existential-Humanistic Counseling.
The findings revealed a significant increase in the overall/mean scores of the dependent variables at the .05 level of significance. The most significant improvements were on attitudes toward self and self-esteem. In the selected measures of the Tennesee Self-Concept Scale, the most significant changes were on Identity, Functioning and Social Self while the most notable changes in the selected measures of the Personal Orientation Inventory were on Existentiality and Self-perception. The hypotheses of the study were accepted. The findings confirmed the theories of Rogers (1961), Murray & Hueslkoetter (1987) on the effectiveness of focusing on feelings and attitudes to effect changes on the self. They uphold May's (1961) and Rogers' (1961) theory on the efficacy of accepting, caring, trusting and understanding relationship to effect improvement on self-esteem and self-actualization. Moreover, the findings concurred with the theory of Daly and Burton (1983) on focusing on enhanced self-worth to reduce attitudes symptomatic of low self-esteem. The counseling style which seemed to suit the subjects was non-directive. The counselees expected the counselor to be involved, to participate, and to provide effective counseling interventions to help them get over their problems and assist them for personal growth. Existential-Humanistic Counseling was found to be more effective when combined with behavioral techniques. In addition, Filipino culture affects personal growth of the subjects of this study.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

310 leaves, 28 cm.


Counseling; Attitude (Psychology); Self-esteem; Self-actualization (Psychology); Existential psychology

This document is currently not available here.