Exploring assertiveness among Filipino late adolescents and late adults

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Counseling and Educational Psychology

Thesis Adviser

Reyes, Jose Alberto

Defense Panel Chair

Guarino, Aime

Defense Panel Member

Estrellado, Alicia
Capeding, Leo
Garcia, Washington
Saldivar, Ma. Crisitina
Mistades, Voltaire, dean


Three studies were conducted to explore Filipinos‘ assertiveness among late adolescents and late adults in Metro Manila. Study 1 investigated the ways that Filipino late adolescents and late adults manifest assertiveness. Three hundred participants completed a questionnaire (200 late adolescents and 100 late adults) to elicit various ways of displaying or expressing assertive behaviors. Five categories of assertiveness situations (expressing, instilling, giving feedback, refusing, and defending) emerged. Results suggest that late adolescents listed more assertive behaviors by way of giving feedback and defending, while late adults displayed a wider range of assertive behaviors, such as: giving feedback, instilling, expressing, and defending. Based on the sample responses, it was also noted that late adolescents frequently assert in situations involving intimates, service workers/strangers, and those of equal authority, while late adults frequently assert to service workers/ strangers and those with lower authority. Study 2 examined developmental nuances in the manifestation of assertiveness and its social desirability. A new set of participants (219 late adolescents and 102 late adults) from different institutions responded to a survey questionnaire developed using the Top 10 exemplar situations derived from Study 1. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed a statistically significant interaction effect between developmental stage and generated situation, F (1,319) = 66.86, p<.001. Pairwise comparison further indicated that late adolescents engage in late adolescent-generated situations (M=28.59, SD=5.25) more than late adult-generated situations (M=25.60, SD=5.01), at p<.001. However, late adults showed no significant difference, p=.080, in endorsing late adolescentgenerated situations (M=29.54, SD=7.26) and late adult-generated situations (M=30.19, SD=6.74). Similarly, there was statistically significant interaction effect between the two factors on social desirability judgments of assertiveness, F

Abstract Format




Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

1 computer disc ; 4 3/4 in.


Assertiveness in adolescence -- Philippines; Teenagers -- Philippines

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