Design, development and implementation of an enthomathematically-enriched learning material in high school geometry

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Mathematics

Subject Categories

Geometry and Topology | Mathematics


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Adora S. Pili

Defense Panel Chair

Lydia S. Roleda

Defense Panel Member

Auxencia A. Limjap
Arlene A. Pascasio
Minie Rose C. Lapinid
Maricar S. Prudente


This study attempts to explore the mathematical ideas embedded in Cabadbaran culture--termed as 'ethnomathematics'-- and integrate it, where appropriate, into the content and process of mathematics teaching and learning. The main goal of this study is centered on the construction of an ethnomathematically-enriched learning material (EELM) in Geometry for Grade 7- Cabadbaran learners.
Phase I of the study involved: analyses on the pedagogical beliefs and practices of 101 mathematics teachers to determine if these leaned towards conventional or constructivists perspective the native games, interests and attitudes towards math of 274 grade 7 students and the different ethnomathematical ideas found in different aspects of Cabadbaran culture. Phase II endeavored to infuse Cabadbaran ethnomathematics into the design and development of EELM. Lastly, Phase III constituted the implementation and evaluation of the curriculum material.
Results indicated that Cabadbaran math teachers, in general, hold pedagogical beliefs that are both conventional and constructivist. With respect to professed teaching practice, teachers distinctively expressed to be practicing the constructivist rather than conventional teaching process. Actual classroom observations, however, showed otherwise. When grouped accordingly, teachers in Kinder through Grade 2 tend to practice the constructivist pedagogy while teachers from Grade 3 through Grade 8, in general, practice the conventional teaching process. Absence of appropriate Grade 7 math textbooks and teachers inadequate understanding of constructivist principle of learning seemed to dilute the effective implementation of Kto12 program in Grade 7.
About seventy percent (70%) to 100% of students experienced playing most of the native games compared to current popular ones (e.g. badminton, volleyball, etc.). Although computer games seemed to be gaining students interests, food, music and sports were ranked as students top priorities and most interesting. Students awareness of mathematical thinking present in their culture and in many daily activities influenced their moderate positive attitude towards mathematics learning.
Cabadbaran ethnomathematics comes in the form of embedded geometrical thinking in native games, art, practices, and images of landmarks and structures. They were integrated into geometry lessons as materials in: exploration activities, content presentation, examples or models in firming up exercises, and performance tasks.
Experts significantly agreed that EELM has met the parameters of a constructivist, culturally relevant instructional material. Similar significant agreement among ten high school math teachers ratings reinforced this finding. Both, the experts and teacher-evaluators indirectly agreed that EELM is suitable for use by its target endusers in the field. Implicitly, they also supported the idea that indeed ethnomathematics can enrich and revitalize mathematics curriculum.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

1 computer optical disc; 4 3/4 in


Ethnomathematics; Geometry--Study and teaching

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