Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Mathematics

Subject Categories

Algebra | Mathematics


Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC College of Education


Science Education

Thesis Adviser

Allan Benedict I. Bernardo

Defense Panel Chair

Auxencia A. Limjap

Defense Panel Member

Maricar S. Prudente
Adora S. Pili
Arlene A. Pascasio
Rosemarievic V. Diaz


This is a case study of four students consisting of extreme levels of self-efficacy engaged in metacognitive activities. The study employed qualitative methods of gathering and analyzing data. It traced the genesis and development of students self-efficacy by describing which concepts in algebra students are self-efficacious and determined how their initial perceptions of efficacy influenced their engagement of collaborative constructivist approach of metacognitive tasks/activities. It aimed to give accounts on how students can explicitly manifest awareness of their cognition by unfolding their stories of how they deliberately plan, monitor and evaluate their learning as they engaged in various collaborative constructivist approaches of metacognitive activities. The four participants were selected from a pool of 15 participants who were freshmen college students of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Mathematics taking up a general course on Advanced Algebra at De La Salle University where the researcher was teaching the said subject. The results of the study provided evidence to the reciprocal nature of links between students self-efficacy beliefs and metacognition and how these constructs can bring about meaningful learning in the students explorations of the selected topics in algebra as they interacted with one another in a small group setup. Students responses on their Algebra Self-efficacy Scale (ASES) indicated that there were improvements in their self-efficacy after they engaged in their collaborative metacognitive activities through mastery experience and verbal persuasions. Students did not attribute their progress in their self-efficacy to vicarious learning despite the inclusion of the iv efficacious students (peer models) in the group. All four cases did not experience any anxiety, stress or tension nor did they express enhancement of self-efficacy due to positive mood. Students initial level of self-efficacy did not affect the extent to which one manifested his planning skills. Analysis of the transcripts of observations as students engaged in metacognitive activities had shown that there was no improvement in planning skills from the onset of the study to its end. Efficacious students exhibited more and sophisticated metacognitive behaviors than the students who had low self-efficacy. Students with initial high self-efficacy manifested moderately to highly metacognitive behaviors in planning, monitoring and evaluation components. Students with initial low self-efficacy manifested low to moderate metacognitive behaviors but eventually improved on the third activity to moderate or high metacognition. A students metacognitive behaviors were further explained in the light of their self-efficacy activated motivational processes. Self-efficacious students attributed their failure to lack of effort and their success to their ability. They believed their actions were never wasted. They adhered to the belief that their actions contribute to their desired output. Students with low expectancy value doubted if their efforts and contributions can be of any worth to the groups output simply because they didnt have the confidence that their capabilities can actualize their expectations. Self-efficacious students set explicit, higher and challenging realistic goals. Although at times students who rated themselves as completely confident in a particular topic helped facilitate their discussions in their metacognitive activity, they underestimated the scope of this topic and undermine paying more attention to details and v things that needed more explorations. Over-confidence may resort to underestimating the task and cutting short the opportunities to be metacognitive. Students who were highly metacognitive had meaningful learning as reflected in their paper and pen tests and portfolios. Interviews with the students revealed that they perceived the collaborative metacognitive activities to have played an important role in the enhancement of ones self-efficacy, metacognition and meaningful learning. Mechanisms for effective social interaction that influence students metacognition, self-efficacy and bring about meaningful learning were also identified.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

xv, 308 leaves ; 28 cm.


Self-efficacy; Metacognition; Algebra

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