Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy

Subject Categories

Theory and Philosophy


College of Liberal Arts



Thesis Adviser

Rolando M. Gripaldo

Defense Panel Chair

Florentino T. Timbreza

Defense Panel Member

Napoleon Mabaquiao, Jr.
Elenita dLR Garcia
Noelle Leslie Dela Cruz
Jose Alejandro S. Tenorio


The name Apolinario Mabini became so important in the annals of the Philippine history. His life and writings served as basis for a philosophy that is truly a Filipino and a Batangueño. This paper is about Apolinario Mabini’s concept of hope and an attempt to highlight the importance of Apolinario Mabini in the development of Filipino philosophy. Mabini’s concept of hope is rooted from his philosophy of person, his philosophy of history, and his political and social philosophy, which in turn were rooted from his assessment of his own Lebenswelt and from his analysis of the Filipino Lebenswelt in general. From his own Lebenswelt, Mabini made his assessment on the nature of the human person. His concept of the human person is influenced by the Scholastic philosophy, which held the idea that the human person is a creature of God and bears the dignity as an imago Dei. The human person has the capacity to determine his/her responsibility over the other individuals and the capability to realize that his/her own happiness can only be made possible when one learns to live with the others. Nevertheless, living one’s life requires an experience of suffering. But this suffering is a means for the human person to realize that there is a need for him/her to search for the ultimate happiness; hence, suffering is seen as an integral part of human life in order for the human person to understand one’s duty and responsibility for the realization of his/her goal. From this concept, Mabini’s philosophy of person can be considered deontologico-teleological. Mabini’s philosophy of history follows a triadic pattern, which may bear resemblance with Giambattista Vico’s philosophy of history. According to Mabini, history is governed by the Divine Providence, who determines the destiny of the world. He held that God created a world that is good. Nevertheless, this world is also filled with sufferings and pain. However, Mabini held that this experience of pain and suffering is necessary for people to realize the need to seek for a better life. Mabini believed that it requires the realization of pain in order to achieve human progress. Moreover, he believed that the human person is destined to achieve happiness and fulfillment. In this case, Mabini’s philosophy of history may be considered as Stoic. He believed that everything that happens in history is according to the will of the Divine Providence. Nevertheless, Mabini held that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved only through the attainment of universal will and social equality. In which case, Mabini held that the attainment of destiny requires human initiative. Mabini’s concept of social and political philosophy is rooted on the idea that the human person is a social being who has a duty and responsibility of upholding the welfare of the society. Mabini believed that without the others, no human person can accomplish any task and could obtain anything that would give him/her fulfillment and happiness. Everyone needs one another in order to survive. In this case, Mabini was calling for unity in order toobtain happiness and fulfillment. For Mabini, the reason why there is suffering is for the people to realize that they need to work together in order to ward off such pains and sufferings. Mabini used argumentum ad populum as his mode of persuasion for the Filipino people to realize the importance of unity and cooperation. From these philosophical ideals, Mabini developed his concept of hope which bears resemblance with Gabriel Marcel’s philosophy of hope. Mabini held that hope is patient and expectant. Like Marcel, Mabini held that hope is active, i.e., if the happiness that the people were longing for were not achieved in their lifetime, the people should not despair because somebody else would fight for them what they were fighting for until such happiness is achieved. Mabini was trying to point out that the revolutionary works would not become futile. Like Marcel, Mabini believed that where there is hope, there is always the possibility of despair. Mabini hope and determination is therefore rooted on the concept of hopelessness, taking into consideration the experience of pain and sufferings as very integral in the life of every people. Mabini’s hope builds on the idea that the despair that people were experiencing can lead themselves to respond with hope. Therefore, despair becomes the real source of hopefulness on the part of the Filipino people. It is because of the pain and sufferings of the people that they remained to be enthusiastic and determined to work hard in order to overcome all the sources of their despair. Mabini’s concept of hope bears a theological underpinnings as it has its foundation on the Divine Providence. Although it may resemble that of Marcel’s philosophy of hope, Mabini’s philosophy bears uniqueness inasmuch as Mabini’s situation is unique and truly Filipino. This philosophy of Mabini can be a basis of modern-day Filipinos to go on in life amidst all the sufferings and the frustrations that they were experiencing.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

x, 238 leaves ; 28 cm.


Mabini, Apolinario, 1864-1903

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