Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education Major in Chemistry

Subject Categories



College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Maricar S. Prudente

Defense Panel Chair

Lydia S. Roleda

Defense Panel Member

Minie Rose C. Lapinid
Voltaire M. Mistades
Socorro E. Aguja
Emmanuel V. Garcia


This research intended to determine the effectiveness of guided-inquiry with particulate representation (G-PARC) teaching strategy using worksheets in improving students’ understanding and confidence on balancing chemical equations. This action research employed Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) research model utilizing the quantitative and qualitative data in two phases. The study was executed to one intact Grade 11 students enrolled in STEM strand of the laboratory high school in one State University in Western Visayas in second semester of Academic Year 2018-2019. To determine the students’ understanding and confidence on balancing chemical equations through particulate drawings before and after intervention, the adapted Visual Conceptual Questionnaire in Stoichiometry plus Confidence (VCQS+C) concept test and Balancing in a Particulate Way (BPW) student worksheets were used. The perception on the use of guided-inquiry worksheets of the students was gathered by means of the Student Perception Survey (SPS) instrument. The entire learning intervention was facilitated by the researcher that lasted for two weeks (9 hours). The teacher-observers’ perception in the implementation on G-PARC pedagogical strategy was also considered by using Class Observation Protocol (COP) checklist. Students’ qualitative data were gathered through Reflection on Learning (ROL) questions before every learning session ended. Likewise, extreme scorers were subjected to semistructured interview after administration of post-test. Results of the study revealed that there was a significant change in the students’ conceptual understanding before and after learning intervention. Similarly, an increase in students’ confidence was established. Moreover, Pearson r correlation revealed a significant relationship between students’ conceptual understanding and confidence. STEM students’ persistent misconceptions on particulate way of balancing chemical equations were also revealed. Teachers-observers’ noted that all the domains used in guided-inquiry classroom were observed during the intervention. Additionally, students’ perceived a strong agreement on the use of activity worksheets which was also supported by the responses through reflection and interview. The use of Guided-Inquiry with Particulate Representation in Chemistry (G-PARC) teaching model where students are given opportunity to increase conceptual understanding, reduce misconceptions, and enhance self-confidence is highly recommended.

Abstract Format






Accession Number



Chemical equations—Charts, diagrams, etc.; Chemistry—Study and teaching

Upload Full Text


Embargo Period