Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies (Research)

Subject Categories

Development Studies


College of Liberal Arts


Political Science

Thesis Adviser

Ma. Divina Gracia Z. Roldan

Defense Panel Chair

Ador R. Torneo

Defense Panel Member

Christianne F. Collantes
Francisco A. Magno
Eric Vincent C. Batalla
Marie Lisa M. Dacanay


Social enterprises have emerged as a viable development strategy to address poverty reduction. It is recognized as an important driver for inclusive growth (Hall, 2012). The study investigates the key characteristics of women micro-entrepreneurs through case studies of social enterprises of Gawad Kalinga (GK) Plush & Play (P&P) and First Harvest.
The study poses the question: How do social enterprises serve as an alternative mechanism for poverty reduction as seen in the cases of woman micro-entrepreneurs from the social enterprises from Gawad Kalinga? The study validates through the social enterprises and the microentrepreneurs interviewed the characteristics of women micro-entrepreneurs and social enterprises that facilitate empowerment. In addition, the empowerment of micro-entrepreneurs from poverty deprivation is emphasized. The study analyzes the conditions of the social enterprises that facilitate empowerment of the women micro-entrepreneurs. The case analysis features social enterprises initiated by GK Plush & Play and First Harvest in Angat, Bulacan. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the women micro-entrepreneurs were done. Key informant interviews were conducted with the community leaders where the women microentrepreneurs operate.
The study uses a framework that describes the link between intermediary organizations, (i.e. GK), the social enterprises, Plush & Play, First Harvest and women micro-entrepreneurs as change agents with the integration of the gender perspective.
The study contributes in crafting effective models of empowerment of women microentrepreneurs from the social enterprises in Gawad Kalinga. It concludes that transformation of the micro-entrepreneur occurs when the social enterprise has been able to empower the microentrepreneur through both soft skills training and the technical training programs through the social enterprises. The study’s findings on the key characteristics of social enterprises that facilitate empowerment point out the importance of soft skills training combined with technical training, mentoring, innovation, strong leadership and partnerships with other development organizations and the vital role of the social enterprise in empowering the women micro-entrepreneurs that can address poverty reduction at the community level.

Abstract Format



Approval of panel chair and panelist through e-mail.





Physical Description

iv, 153 leaves


Poverty--Philippines; Business enterprises--Social aspects

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