Higher order cognitive skills in Filipino towards measurable criteria for describing Cummins' CALP.

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Arts in Language and Literature Major in Filipino


College of Liberal Arts



Thesis Adviser

Gonzalez, Bro. Andrew, FSC

Defense Panel Member

Bautista, Dr. Ma. Lourdes
Reyes, Dr. Flordeliza
Medina, Dr. Buenaventura
Versosa, Dr. Guillermina
Erestain, Dr. Teresita


This study looks into the extent to which Filipino grade school students are capable of carrying out complex cognitive operations through the Filipino language and the extent to which the Filipino language facilitated these students' general cognitive and academic progress. It also tries to identify the threshold level of cognitive academic Filipino language competence which grade school children have attained.The sudy covers a sample size of 400 grade school students in the city of Manila and three outlying towns east of Metro Manila based on an error margin of .10 standard deviation and a level of confidence of .05. Selection of school was based on the following categories: linguistic area (Tagalog) geographical area (city and outlying towns of Metro Manila) type of school (private and public) socio-economic (low and high).Multiple correlation through step-wise regression was used to test whether significant differences in the Filipino Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) threshold levels of students exist due to school location, type of school, and socio-economic status. The same statistical tool was used to determine whether the CALP threshold level is significantly related to their academic grades in Filipino language and Araling Panlipunan / social studies and with their home language use.
Conclusions formulated on the basis of the findings are:1. The Filipino CALP of grade school students is at application level which, based on the framework adopted from Cummins and Blooms, is only the third in the lower levels of intellectual ability.2. Knowledge of Filipino language does not guarantee high functional language proficiency or CALP.3. The teaching of Filipino, Araling Panlipunan/social studies/HEKASI or any other subject taught in the Filipino language is focused mostly with knowledge imparting. Skills stressed are comprehension and application.4. Although Filipino is generally a first language among grade school students, it has been maximally used in the thinking/cognitive processing of these students.5. The grade school students covered in this study are strongest in application and weakest in synthesis.

Abstract Format




Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

173+ leaves


Cognition -- Tests and scales.; Filipino language.; Bilingualism.; Language and language -- Testing.

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