The differential effects of three preteaching activities on the reading achievements in English of Indonesian university freshmen.


Setia Bangun

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Arts in Language and Literature Major in English

Subject Categories

Other English Language and Literature


College of Liberal Arts


Literature, Department of

Thesis Adviser

Andrew Gonzalez, FSC

Defense Panel Chair

Araceli Hidalgo

Defense Panel Member

Glenda Fortez
Flordeliza Reyes
Teresita Erestain
Estrellita V. Gruenberg


The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of preteaching activities on reading achievement of Indonesian university freshmen learning English as a foreign language. Three hundred freshmen of the School of Economics of the Indonesian Christian University, divided into six intact classes, were assigned to three treatment conditions: the use of (1) Lists of Difficult Words (LDW), (2) Advance Organizers (AO), and (3) both LDW and AO as preteaching activities. Apart from treatment effects, gender, pretest, and brain preference effects were also evaluated. The study employed a 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design.A validated Cloze Test was administered as a pretest and posttest to measure the subjects' reading scores. A non-validated Brain Preference Indicator Test was administered to determine the subjects' brain hemisphericity. The data were analyzed with a four-way ANOVA. There were significant treatment effects but no significant interactions. The subjects who were taught reading comprehension with the use of both LDW and AO scored significantly higher than those who were taught either with the use of AOs or with the use of LDWs and those who were taught with the use of AOs scored significantly higher than those who were taught with the use of LDWs.

In summary, it was found that LDW + AO AO LDW. It was then concluded that the effectiveness of the three teaching modes differed in the following order: LDW+AO, AO, LDW.A test of significance also revealed that the left-hemispheric subjects performed better than the right-hemispheric subjects.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

179 leaves


English as a second language; English language -- Study and teaching; College freshmen -- Indonesia; Indonesian students; Reading comprehension; Reading -- Ability testing

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