The effects of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) root extract, guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract, and ampalaya (Momordica charantia) fruit and seed extract on toad (Bufo marinus) skeletal muscle contraction and fatigability

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biology

Subject Categories



College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Noel F. Alfonso


The use of medicinal plants for treatment and prevention to different illnesses have been widespread around the Philippines such as ginseng, guava, and bitter melon or locally termed as ampalaya. These are commonly known to provide treatment for digestive abnormalities, inflammatory, rheumatism, immunodeficiencies, and chronic fatigue. The study aimed to determine the effects of Panax ginseng, Psidium guajava Linn., and Momordica charantia on the force of contraction and fatigability of toad gastrocnemius muscle as a potential muscle fatigue reductant and muscle performance improvement supplement. Commercially bought plant extracts of 450 mg Korean Ginseng Root Extract, 500 mg Charantia Ampalaya capsule, and Carica Bayabas tea were tested and extracted into three dosages, namely, low (one capsule/tea bag per 40 mL Ringer solution), medium (one capsule/tea bag per 20 mL Ringer solution), and high (two capsules/tea bags per 20 mL Ringer solution), and was compared to its control group of pure Ringer solution. A total of 54 toads or 108 gastrocnemius muscles having three replicates per dosage were evaluated with the three extracts with the aid of the Powerlab setup and LabTutor software to examine the above objectives respectively. For muscle contraction (Newtons), the low and high concentrations of P. ginseng showed significant differences (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) to their control and gave a negative effect to the muscle. The high concentration of M. charantia (P < 0.01) also showed a significant difference with its control but contributed a positive effect. However, for P. guajava L., the average force of contraction values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from its control Ringer setup. The high concentration of P. ginseng (P < 0.01), and the medium concentrations of P. guajava L. (P < 0.05) and M. charantia (P < 0.01) were all significantly different to their control setups in terms of average time of muscle to fatigue (seconds). It was observed that P. ginseng shortens the fatigability time of the muscle, while P. guajava L. and M. charantia exhibited opposite effects. It seems that M. charantia at medium dosage is optimal to enhance both contraction and fatigue time, P. guajava L. at medium dosage appears to bear effects of prolonging time to fatigue, and P. ginseng may exhibit unfavorable effects to both contraction and fatigue.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

1 computer disc ; 4 3/4 in.


Ginseng; Medicinal plants--Philippines; Guava; Momordica charantia

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