Evaluation of compressive strength and durability of concrete with coconut shell ash to determine the optimal level of cement replacement

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering with Specialization in Structural Engineering

Subject Categories

Civil Engineering | Construction Engineering and Management


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Civil Engineering

Thesis Adviser

Mary Ann Q. Adajar

Defense Panel Chair

Joenel G. Galupino

Defense Panel Member

Maria Emilia P. Sevilla
Daniel Nichol R. Valerio


Cement remains to be the most expensive raw material in the production of concrete. Unfortunately, it is also not an eco-friendly material as it contributes to 5% of all global greenhouse gas emission produced from factories and fossil fuels (Nogrady, 2016). In order to reduce the rising cost and environmental impact of concrete in the construction industry, it is crucial to reduce the usage of cement. A feasible way of diminishing the use of concrete is to partially replace cement with coconut shell ash (CSA) as a natural pozzolan. To ensure this method is viable in the field, this paper investigates the strength and durability properties of the partially replaced concrete. The durability properties that will be examined are sorptivity and sulfate attack will also be investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, the optimum replacement of cement is 1% similarly to previous studies. The difference between the conventional concrete and 10% CSA is negligible according to the statistical test. Therefore, CSA is a feasible materal as an alternative to cement.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

xiii, 187 leaves: illustrations (some colored); 30 cm.


Cement; Building materials

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