A cost-benefit analysis on the household cooking energy consumption in the Philippines with the use of the long-range energy planning-integrated benefits calculator (LEAP-IBC) system

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Physics Minor in Finance

Subject Categories

Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment | Natural Resource Economics


College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Edgar A. Vallar

Defense Panel Chair

Ma. Cecilia D. Galvez

Defense Panel Member

Liz C. Silva
Gwen B. Castillon


Household air pollution is one of the leading causes of death in the world, most especially those who are living in the countries in the Southeast Asian region and countries with low and middle income. There are many sources of household air pollution, household cooking being one of its major contributors.

This study focused on the need to determine the emissions from different types of cooking fuels and their environmental impacts in the Philippines. With the use of Monte Carlo simulations, this research provided an analysis on· the cost and benefits on the use of the cooking fuels and stoves. Different scenarios were created with the use of the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system - Integrated Benefits Calculator (LEAP-IBC) to show long term effects when efforts are made to reduce emissions by the year 2050. The three (3) scenarios were run in the program. These are the HAL, ICS, and CLE scenarios.

In the Philippines, six (6) fuels are used for cooking (HECS, 2011). These are electricity, LPG, kerosene, fuelwood, charcoal, and biomass residues. Cookstoves utilizing electricity, and LPG as fuel are referred to as clean cookstoves and are already considered 'improved'. Traditional stoves utilize fuelwood, charcoal, and biomass residues. Since clean cookstoves are already an improved stove, an improved cookstove (ICS) in this study would refer to the improved cookstove utilizing fuelwood, and charcoal. Improved cookstove for the traditional biomass residue cookstove would be the improved fuelwood cookstove due to some studies considering fuelwood as biomass and the terminologies used are interchanged.

The Half Clean Shift and Half ICS Shift (HAL) scenario assumes that half of traditional cookstove users would shift to improved cookstoves while the other half would shift to clean cookstove by 2050. The JCS Shift Only (ICS) scenario assumes that all traditional cookstove users would shift to JCS by the end year. In the Clean Shift Only (CLE) scenario, it is assumed that all traditional stove users shift to clean cookstoves by the end year.

The result comparison of the projected values of each scenario shown that the CLE scenario would have the highest emission reduction for Black Carbon and PM2.s, and Global Warming Potential (GWP) out of the other two scenarios. Meanwhile the JCS scenario had the lowest projected emissions, and GWP, meaning shifting to an improved cookstove alone would not be enough to make significant emission reduction and lowering of GWP hence making the CLE scenario the most ideal.

The cost-benefit analysis results showed that LPG, which is one of the fuels that clean cookstoves use, to be the most practical option considering the parameters used with regards to the analysis made.

The researchers suggest that future research must take these variables into account, as well as the geography, way of life, and traditions of the target area. Other ways of categorization such as doing an analysis on a regional level and by income class level may also be done to provide a better visualization of the benefits for switching cookstoves.

Abstract Format




Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall


Fuel—Cost effectiveness; Energy consumption; Stoves—Cost effectiveness

Embargo Period


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