A cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control policies for Philippine jeepneys and tricycles using long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP)

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Physics Minor in Finance

Subject Categories

Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment


College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Edgar A. Vallar

Defense Panel Chair

Ofelia T. Rempillo

Defense Panel Member

Liz C. Silva
Gwen B. castillon


This study performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) on the Philippines National Capital Region (NCR). In particular, the ubiquitous Jeepneys and Tricycles. This study was analyzed with LEAP which stands for Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system. It is scenario based, Supporting National Action Plan (SNAP) toolkit used to compare climate change mitigation policies. For this study, LEAP was utilized for 4 different scenarios for Jeepneys and Tricycles in order to compare the different PM10, PM2.s, and BC emission levels from base year 2015 to 2050. The scenarios for Jeepneys are based on the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) plan by the DOTr with partnership with GIZ. To continue, the scenarios for Tricycles are taken from the Asian Development Bank E-trike project and the Environmental Sustainable Transport project by the local government of San Fernando City, La Union. In the study, 75% of the PM2.s mass is BC and the emission levels for all scenarios were run into LEAP and tabulated in excel in order to be monetized, adjusted for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation, and analyzed for the CBA which uses Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit/Cost (B/C) ratio. Employment was also taken into consideration in this study as a complement to the CBA.

The results of LEAP shows that for both jeepney and tricycle, the emissions for PM 10, PM2.s, and B in NCR all increased per year in the Business As Usual scenarios. ln both jeepney scenarios, NAMA -jeep and Diesel- constant, pollutant emissions decreased considerably, with emission levels decreasing most significantly in the Diesel-Constant scenario. On the contrary, Tricycles are segregated into 2-Strokes (2S) and 4-Strokes (4S) Tricycles. Due to the small-scale increase of electric vehicles and low Emission Factors (EF) for 4S tricycles, there is an insignificant decrease in the overall pollutant emission for the E-trike scenario. However, decreasing the 2S tricycle share of the overall fleet, as with the 4S scenario, caused a significant decrease in the PM1o and PM2.s emissions.

For the CBA results, the study has shown that both Jeepney scenarios are economically viable according to the NPV and B/C since, in addition to the decrease in the pollutant emissions for both Jeepney scenarios, they are also profitable and have more benefits than costs. On the hand, the Tricycle CBA results shows that both scenarios are not economically viable due to the negative NPV and the B/C results, showing that the insignificant decrease in the pollutant emission is not enough to justify the implementation of the different tricycle mitigation policies that were analyzed. This is partly due to the fact that tricycles only cover small areas of roads in villages.

Finally, for the employment, this section shows that for every 10,000 units of Electric vehicle manufactured, 250 manufacturing jobs can be created and shows that the NAMA E-jeep scenario creates the most jobs in the economy with the Diesel-Constant scenario creating the least jobs.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall


Energy policy—Philippines—Metro Manila; Air quality management—Philippines—Metro Manila—Cost effectiveness

Embargo Period


This document is currently not available here.