Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) based characterization of the exhaust emission of KM-186F engine using diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-injected diesel fuel

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Premed Physics

Subject Categories

Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment


College of Science



Thesis Adviser

Edgar A. Vallar

Defense Panel Chair

Ma. Cecilia Galvez

Defense Panel Member

Christopher Que
Ernest Macalalad


To determine which fuel is safer for the consumer to use, either Diesel fuel or Diesel with injected LPG fuel, a series of samples were conducted on a KM - 186F Engine to determine the elemental composition and size of the particles, as well as to obtain a gas analysis on the exhaust produced by the engine supplied with both types of fuel. Three samples, namely Diesel, LPG at Minimum Amount (LPG Min) and LPG at Maximum Amount (LPG Max) were tested. For each sample, two trials were taken and the particles were collected using a Staplex MBS 6-Stage Microbial Air Sampler. A Delta 1600L Gas Analyzer was used to measure the amounts of CO, NO, HC and other compounds found in the exhaust produced by the engine with Diesel and LPG fuel. A Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) was used to find the elemental composition as well as the size of the particles. From the data, Two-Way and One-Way ANOV A options were used to determine the difference of elemental percentages as well as particle sizes between the samples, stages, trials and particles recorded. From the results, it became evident that LPG fuel injected in the engine gave a higher concentration of several elements compared to Diesel. Further, the particle sizes of both fuels were different and not constant to a specific stage. However, the results for the elemental composition and particle sizes are not conclusive (based on the P-Values computed) to say which fuel is safe to use. Lastly, the gas analysis results inferred that LPG produced higher amounts of HC and CO. Coupling the gas analysis results with the known effects of HC and CO, it can be concluded that Diesel fuel is the safer fuel to use.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall



Embargo Period


This document is currently not available here.