A study on the use of primary paper sludge as reinforcing additive to load-bearing CHB with 700psi Strength

Date of Publication


Document Type

Bachelor's Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Subject Categories

Civil Engineering


Gokongwei College of Engineering


Civil Engineering

Thesis Adviser

Ronaldo Gallardo

Defense Panel Chair

Jason Maximo C. Ongpeng

Defense Panel Member

Agnes Galang

Eugenio Chan


Paper sludge is known to cause major problems for waste disposal for most paper mills. It is toxic and is harmful to the lands, where they are usually disposed. Researchers have found various ways to use paper sludge as a construction material, and are often applied in panel-boards and concrete walls. In this paper, however, the purpose is to investigate the effects of paper sludge added as a reinforcing additive to load-bearing concrete hollow blocks with 700psi design strength. Paper sludge used for this study came from a Pulp and Paper mill named TIPCO in Pampanga, Philippines. Sludge ratio of 9%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the total mix are examined and tested at Jackbilt Laboratory in Pampanga for compression which obtained 730.48psi, 884.36psi, and 754.15psi, respectively. The special process called deflocculation is done to the sludge before mixing by submerging the sludge into the water letting it absord water and spit up.

Abstract Format






Accession Number


Shelf Location

Archives, The Learning Commons, 12F, Henry Sy Sr. Hall

Physical Description

1 v. (various foliations) ; 28 cm.


Paper industry--Waste disposal; Wood-pulp industry--Waste disposal; Waste products as building materials

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